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Home page > 03 - Livre Trois : HISTOIRE > 3ème chapitre : Révolutions bourgeoises et populaires > Chronology : Struggle of American Indians

Chronology : Struggle of American Indians

Sunday 16 August 2015, by Robert Paris

Chronology : Struggle of American Indians

The massacres of Native American populations are not officially registered among genocides identified by the United Nations.

However, at least 14 million Indians died between the sixteenth century and the nineteenth century... And most of them did not die of natural death but were killed with collective violence and there civilisation were methodically destroyed. American Indians (from north, south and center of the american continent) have suffered a genuine genocide but they did not submit to that violence. They have always struggled against it... They were killed by all ways possible, raped, burned, tortured, exploited, murdered by "the Greatest Western Civilizations" : Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English, French, American to the launch of the capitalist world that was born in a big bloodbath ... Westerners have not only destroyed men, women and children but hundreds of different indian civilizations. It is a priceless lost for humanity!

All these various peoples, which represented multiple civilizations, have been wiped off the map. The alleged superior Western civilization has engaged in a massacre of many peoples and many cultures.

October 12, 1492: "Discovery of America" by Christopher Columbus. Arrival of Columbus, Palos de August 3rd party in the company of Martin Pinzón brothers Vincent and shipboard La Pinta, La Niña and La Santa María. On October 12, they reached the island of Guanahani (Bahamas), called San Salvador. In the Bahamas, Columbus meets the Arawak Indians. They live in village communities and practice maize, yams and cassava. They know spinning and weaving but do not know the horse and do not use animals for plowing. They ignore steel, but carry small gold jewelry in the ears.

October 28, 1492: the expedition of Columbus reached Cuba in the Greater Antilles.

December 6, 1492: Columbus and the Pinzón brothers discover Haiti they call Espanola. They leave a garrison of 39 men at Fort Navidad constructed December 25 with the remains of Santa Maria failed, with a mission to discover and store gold.

25 September 1493: start of the second voyage of Christopher Columbus (late in 1496). He left Cadiz with 17 ships between 1200 and 1600 men, and discovered the Lesser Antilles (12 November) with Dominica and Guadeloupe and Puerto Rico. Then he returned to Hispaniola early December where he found the fort of Navidad destroyed following a revolt of the natives deal with abuses of the colonists. Columbus decided to found a new city, Isabela, on a grid plan (December 7).

January-March 1494: Christopher Columbus founds explores Haiti and in Hispaniola, La Isabela, the first Spanish colony in the New World. He tells the colony and the gold prospecting Alonzo of Hojeda then left for Juana (Cuba).

April 24 to August 23, 1494: Columbus explores Jamaica (Discovery 4 May) and the southwestern coast of Cuba which he describes as a peninsula of the Asian continent. September 29, 1494: back to La Isabela Columbus learns an uprising led by the cacique Caonabo just been crushed by Pedro Margarit. Five hundred recalcitrant natives were deported as slaves to Spain. March 1495: In Haiti, the Spaniards organized a great hunt and gather in the slave Arawaks 1500 (men, women and children), they parquent in enclosures under the supervision of men and dogs. Five percent of them are shipped to Spain. Two hundred die during the crossing, and the survivors are on sale upon arrival. Columbus sells every Indian to 5000 maravedis.

August 5, 1498: Columbus arrives in the delta of the Orinoco and soon realizes that it is a continent. He believes that it is the Indies. But it is America ...

August 30, 1498: Columbus arrives in Hispaniola that is on the verge of civil war, torn between supporters of Bartholomew Columbus ("foreigners") and those of the judge Roldan (Spaniards’ limpia sangre ") and the rebellious Indians against the tyranny of Bartolomé.

March 30, 1501, America: Rodrigo de Bastidas and Juan de la Cosa discover the mouth of the Magdalena. They explore the Colombian coast from the Gulf of Maracaibo to the Gulf of Urabá.

May 13, 1501: the Portuguese government sent a fleet led by Gonçalo Coelho accompanied by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci to perform recognition coast of Brazil. They report in Europe (1502) brasil wood (wood brésillet) that produces a red dye that will be popular and which gave its name to the new territory. Amerigo Vespucci becomes aware that Africa is not Asia.

August 17, 1501: Amerigo Vespucci and Gonçalo Coelho landed in Rio Grande do Norte, then along the coast to the South.

September 16, 1501: instruction of the Spanish sovereigns to the Governor of West Indies Nicolás de Ovando. They allow the introduction of black slaves in America

April 1502: Nicolás de Ovando is activated as the "colonization" of Haiti in 1507 it will be only 60,000 natives, the others being sick died in forced labor or during the repression of revolts.

May 9, 1502: start of the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus. Party of Cadiz May 9, it doubles the Martinique (June 15), along the coast of Central America, Honduras to the Gulf of Darien. He thinks that Honduras is Indochina. It hardly manages to regain Cuba (1503) and then fails in Jamaica (1504). Rescued by Governor Ovando of Hispaniola, Columbus returned to Spain November 7, 1504.

March-April 1503: In his letter Mundus Novus, the navigator Amerigo Vespucci hypothesizes that the lands discovered by Columbus were not the Indies but a new continent.

June 9, 1509: Christopher Columbus’s son, Diego Columbus, appointed governor of the West Indies left Sanlúcar to meet the viceroy Nicolás de Ovando (completed in 1515). He began the conquest of Cuba (1510).

1500s: The encomienda is a system applied by the Spanish throughout the Spanish colonial empire during the conquest of the New World for economic purposes and evangelization. It was the combination over a territory of hundreds of natives that were forced to work without payment in mines and fields: it was a "pseudo-serfdom," a "form rejuvenated regime lordly ". They were "entrusted" ("encomendados"), that is to say under the orders of a "encomendero" Spanish colonist well rewarded for his services to the Spanish monarchy; in practice it freely available native land, although they still belonged to the Crown.

22 January and 14 February 1510: the Crown of Castile command to Casa de Contratación Seville sends 50 and 200 African slaves to Hispaniola blacks in America. Beginning in November 1510: Martín Fernández de Enciso founded Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the first Spanish colony in the Americas (Tierra Firme).

February 1511: revolt of Taino in Puerto Rico after the cacique Urayoán has ordered his men to drown the Spanish soldier Diego Salcedo to determine if the Spaniards were immortal (November 1510). Juan Ponce de León fiercely repressed the insurgency and brought black slaves from Africa to work in the mines.

1513: Arrival of the first black slaves in Cuba, conquered in November 1511, became a Spanish colony 15 August 1512. Conquest ended 28 June 1514. 20 January 1516, America: Diaz de Solís, Jopa party December 13, 1515, landed at Río de la Plata (March Dulce), where he is killed by cannibals Charrúa or Guaraní Indians.

1 May 1518, America: Spanish Juan de Grijalva, nephew of Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, governor of Cuba, explore the Yucatan Peninsula. It follows the north and west coasts of the Gulf of Mexico to pánuco river and discovers the existence of the Aztec empire.

March 5, 1519: Hernán Cortés landed in Yucatán (Mexico). Beginning of the conquest of the Aztec Empire (late in 1521). August 31, 1519 - September 23, 1519: Cortés conquers the kingdom of Tlaxcala which he is an ally against the Aztecs.

November 8, 1519: Cortés wins Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital where the emperor Moctezuma II (1466-1520) recognized the suzerainty of Charles V. The massacre of Cholula is an attack carried out in 1519 by the military forces of the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés during his march to the city of Tenochtitlan. This resulted in the death of 5000 à 6000 Cholulans, unarmed civilians for the most in less than six hours. After this military action, the Cholulans, which had hitherto been faithful tributary of Mexica, submitted and allied themselves with the Spanish conquistadors.

June 2, 1520, Tenochtitlan: Pedro de Alvarado ordered the massacre of Aztec nobles gathered in front of the Templo Mayor for festive Toxcatl. The Aztecs enter immediately into rebellion and besieged the Spaniards.

June 24, 1520: Cortés returned to Tenochtitlan.

26 to 30 June 1520: Aztec uprising in Tenochtitlan. Moctezuma II was mortally wounded by a stone throw away.

30 June-1 July 1520: Noche Triste Hernán Cortés fled from Tenochtitlan.

7 juillet1520: Cortés victory over the Aztecs at the battle of Otumba.

September 7, 1520: Cuitláhuac Moctezuma II succeeds as tlatoani of the Aztec empire. He died in November 25 of smallpox when he tried to rally the Tlaxcalans under cover of a federation. Cuauhtémoc, instigator of the revolt against the Spanish, succeeds him (29 January 1521).

21 to 28 November 1520: the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan recognizes and forces the strait between Patagonia Tierra del Fuego named after him. On October 21, it doubles the course of the eleven thousand virgins, then carefully cross the Strait to Cape Desire (November 28). It reaches a calm sea to which he gives the Pacific name.

March 6, 1521: Magellan discovers the first Mariana (Islas de Ladrones).

16-18 March 1521: Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon the Philippines.

7 April 1521: Magellan arrived in Cebu. He converted to Catholicism the king of Cebu and many residents (14 April).

April 27, 1521: Magellan is killed with six other men of the fleet as he attempts to checkmate the king of Mactan, which refused to recognize the Christian king of Cebu. The expedition, commanded by João Lopes Carvalho puts sail to try to reach the Moluccas.

April 1521, Mexico: Tlaxcalan chief Xicohténcatl began to desert after the death of Maxixcatl, carried away by the smallpox epidemic (December 1520). Cortés executed.

May 26, 1521: beginning of the siege of Tenochtitlan by Hernan Cortes.

August 13, 1521: Hernán Cortés manages to resume Tenochtitlan (Mexico), the Aztec capital, after three months of siege, which left the city in ruins. Mexico becomes the New Spain.

January 31, 1522: Pedro de Alvarado left Coyoacán to quell the insurgency Mixtec raised against the Spanish (1520-1523). He entered Oaxaca on February 20 and March 4 he conquered the Mixtec capital Tututepec. The Mixtecs are excellent goldsmiths. Alvarado, doing hands on their jewelry, melts them and turn them into ingots.

October 15, 1522, Valladolid Hernán Cortés is appointed by Charles V. governor general of New Spain. It administers Mexico authoritarian manner.

1522: Revolt of black Haiti.

December 6, 1523: Pedro de Alvarado on an expedition to El Salvador and Guatemala, where he founded Santiago de los Caballeros 25 July 1524. Party in search of gold, he committed many massacres of natives.

1523: Revolt of blacks in Santo Domingo.

October 12, 1524: Cortes mounts a punitive expedition to Honduras. The last Aztec emperor Cuauhtémoc, suspected of wanting to raise the Indians, was hanged by Cortes during the expedition (28 February 1525). Cortés reached Nito (San Gil de Buena Vista), and then sailed for Trujillo, he left by Wed April 25, 1526 to join Mexico, prey to the intrigues and conspiracies.

February 2, 1525: Francisco Pizarro’s expedition en route to Peru, landed in Tierra Firme in Candelaria, in current Colombia. Pizarro turned back after an attack on an indigenous tribe in Punta Quemada.

July-18 October 1526: failure of Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in his attempt at colonization of Florida. 1527 Peru: death of Huayna Capac Inca. Civil war between Huascar and his half-brother Atahualpa.

October 1528: first burning of the New World in Mexico City (run by the fire of alleged heretics by the Catholic Inquisition).

May 20, 1530: Diego de Ordaz receives the Spanish Crown letters patent authorizing it to conquer and populate the provinces between the Río Marañón (Orinoco) to Cabo de la Vela (Guajira). It explores the Guyanese coast and the Orinoco (1530-1531). He died of sunstroke on the banks of the Rio Negro.

July 15, 1530: Hernán Cortés, back in Mexico as Marquis of the Oaxaca Valley, moved to Cuernavaca. It operates the area with plantations (mulberry, hemp, flax, sugar cane), livestock (cattle and merino), and exploitation of gold mines (Tehuantepec) and money (Zacatecas).

January 22, 1532, Brazil: Martin Afonso founded the first village settlement: Vila de São Vicente (São Paulo State) 1. The donee system is widespread.

April 1532, Peru: Atahualpa winner of his half-brother Huascar in the Battle of Quipaipan, near Cuzco, Inca becomes.

May 16, 1532: Francisco Pizarro leaves Tumbes. He discovered the port of Paita and ensures its rear. He receives a messenger of Huascar who claims relief to him.

September 24, 1532: Pizarro heads south with 168 men.

November 15, 1532: Cajamarca, Pizarro met Atahualpa’s army, which has take power in Cuzco, and began talks with its leader. When Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, it is seen as a god. It removes the emperor Atahualpa and encourages the revolt of peoples subject to the Incas. The empire is fragmented and the Emperor is finally executed by the Spanish in 1533. The conquistadors control the Inca territory in the middle of the sixteenth century, although resistance still occur. The formation of the Spanish colonial empire was accompanied by looting, new diseases are rampant, starvation, enslavement of Indians in encomiendas and evangelization of the population.

Historical demography believes that a majority of Indians died as a result of infectious diseases brought by the Spaniards, against which Native Americans were not immune. In contact with Europeans, Amerindians had a very large population decline caused by diseases imported from Europe and outbreaks due to microbial shock because these diseases such as whooping cough, measles and smallpox, were not known tribes. The process began in the 1500s and epidemics of smallpox (1525, 1558, 1589), typhus (1546), flu (1558), diphtheria (1614), measles (1618) or bubonic plague ( 1617-1619, New England) have decimated millions of natives. For example, Timicuas, Florida, who in 1650 were 13 000 spread over 40 villages, were not after a smallpox epidemic that 35 in 1728, grouped in one hamlet.

The number of natives died from disease, exploitation or assassination by colonial forces is estimated at 90 million, including 10 million in North America.

November 16, 1532: Pizarro managed to seize the person of the Inca who accepts all the conditions imposed for his release (88 m3 gold ransom, meeting in July 1533). The ransom is shared among the winners after sending the quinto in Spain, but prefers Pizarro executed Inca for the murder of his brother Huascar. It will be pinioned before the soldiers (29 August 1533).

July 26, 1533: Atahualpa, the last Inca emperor captured treacherously by Pizarro, was sentenced to death and strangled. Inca resistance is disorganized. Indians Pizarro sharing between its men by the encomienda system. Each receives 40,000 natives. This system will ruin the economic system of the Inca Empire. The introduction of the money economy and new forms of tribute (forced labor in the mines), will complete the system to disintegrate balance. The Spaniards use the old system of power and trade to their advantage, but that works the principle of reciprocity in the exchange, which was the foundation.

October 1533: revolt Rumiñahui who wants to take power from Quito with the army of Atahualpa (12,000 men). Belalcázar beats plain with 200 infantry and 80 cavalry during the eruption of Cotopaxi, which terrifies the Indians. Rumiñahui managed to escape into the mountains. Captured, he died from his torture in June 25, 1535.

November 15, 1533: The Spanish occupied Cuzco where they place Manco Inca Yupanqui, brother of Atahualpa, the Inca on the throne (late in 1537). The city was sacked.

April 20, 1534: Jacques Cartier, who has made up his mind to find the northern route to India without going through the long and perilous road to the South, from St. Malo with two small buildings, and support of the King Francis I, in search of the passage. Otherwise, he will discover Canada and Labrador. It partially recognizes the coasts of Newfoundland (May 10), the island of Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, and then explores the St. Lawrence (1534 and 1535-1536).

July 24, 1534: Jacques Cartier arrived at Gaspé, there planted a cross and took possession of the territory in the name of the King of France. Donnacona, the chief of the Indian village of Stadacona (Quebec) protested against this move.

May 3, 1535: Hernán Cortés’s expedition in Baja California reached the Paz6. Cortes discovered the sea that will bear his name and claimed California for Spain. The difficulties faced colonization (diseases, Indian attacks) cause the recall of shipment by the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza in 1540.

July 3, 1535: from Cuzco expedition of Diego de Almagro in Chile with 570 Spaniards and 15,000 Indians under the command of Paulus, the brother of Manco II (completed in 1537). He loses 150 Spaniards and 10,000 Indians crossing the Andes before reaching the plain of Copiapo, then the Pacific in Coquimbo. After the rio Reminder, he faces the Araucanians who oppose any permanent settlers.

January 22, 1536 and February 3, 1536: the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Mendoza founded the city of Nuestra Senora del Buenos Aires (Argentina). It runs further north Guaraní Indians who intend to conquer the heights of Bolivia and Paraguay today. These are rough warriors, masters of the lasso, and the losses they inflict on Spaniards are considerable. In their advance, the Guarani have rejected, from the east, the Arawak tribes, and having conquered shreds of the former Inca empire, face the Spaniards. To better resist them, Indian tribes are united under the umbrella of Chiriguanos, the most active of the Guarani. Pedro de Mendoza left the command to Juan de Ayolas and re-embarked for Spain. He died on the way back (24 June 1537).

March 1536: arrival of Diego de Almagro in the valley of the Rio Copiapo in Chile. Beginning of the conquest of the land constituting the current Chile, against the Araucanians Indians by the Spaniards, led by Almagro and Pedro de Valdivia (1541).

April 5, 1536: departure of the dispatch of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada in Colombia on behalf of Alonso Fernandez de Lugo. It runs from Santa Marta with 700 Spaniards and 3000 native auxiliaries and hard up the river Magdalena in order to achieve the legendary Eldorado. He lost many men and plunders the passage of native graves. He succeeded in the empire of Chibcha where he is welcomed. He finds Zipaquirá, capital of Bogota, the Zipa of Chibcha, deserted. The temples of the city are covered with gold and emeralds. The Spaniards torture people to know the provenance of gold. They send them to the south, but they find nothing. On the way back to Zipaquirá, Quesada met Sebastian de Belalcázar shipments, come from Quito and Nikolaus Federmann, who came from Coro, Venezuela and working for the Welser (1538).

April 18, 1536, Peru: Inca Manco Capac II, held by the Spaniards in Cuzco, is released under the pretext of celebrating the anniversary of his father’s death Huayna Capac. Refugees in the Andean mountains, he organized the war against the Spaniards throughout the country. Lima and Cuzco are besieged, but the Indian army, for lack of preparation, must retreat.

April 8, 1537: Diego de Almagro, back in Chile, enters Cuzco shaken up after Manco II troops. He jailed the Sacsayhuaman fortress of Cuzco, Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro and proclaimed himself governor and then march on Lima by taking Hernando hostage.

June 2, 1537: publication of the Veritas ipsa letter of Pope Paul III who declared that Indians are human beings.

June 9, 1537: sublimus dei bubble Paul III declares that the Indians are capable of receiving the Christian faith.

August 15, 1537: Juan de Ayolas founded the post of Asuncion in Paraguay. He falls under the blows of a boleadoras (balls lasso) handled by a native.

September 1538: Start of the conquest of the land constituting the current Bolivia by Spanish conquistadors.

April 1539: appointed lieutenant general of New Toledo (Chile), Pedro de Valdivia began the difficult conquest of Chile (1540).

May 30, 1539: Spanish Hernando de Soto landed in Tampa Bay, Florida. It reaches Mobile Bay (October 1540), the Bouches du Mississippi (May 1541) and then goes back to the fringes Arkansas and Oklahoma. His soldiers are decimated by fevers and Indian attacks. De Soto turned back and died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi. The survivors, gathered around the telltale of their leader, decide to walk to Mexico. They pass through Oklahoma to face the foothills. They then return to Mississippi and down the river after building seven large canoes. Attacked by the Indians, they manage to the Gulf of Mexico, where they are caught in the storm. The survivors washed ashore, walk out to the post pánuco river, up to Tampico.

1539: Civil war for the division of spoils between the conquistadores in Peru. All heads (Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro and his brothers, the son of Almagro) successively are killed between 1539 and 1541 by killing one.

22 April 1540: shipment of Spanish Francisco Vázquez de Coronado left Culiacan. She goes up the Río Grande, exploring Arizona and New Mexico (late in 1542).

July 7, 1540: Francisco Vázquez de Coronado reached Hawikuh Ruins in Zuni territory. He sent detachments to explore the region. Some reach Kansas. One of them commanded by López de Cárdenas, discovered the Great Canyon. Coronado off again in April 1542. On his return to Mexico, he must quell the rebellion of the Indians of Zacatecas, with the help of Pedro de Alvarado, who died killed by the Indians in July 4, 1541.

July 4, 1541, Indian rebellion of Zacatecas in Mexico: Pedro de Alvarado, who dies crushed by his horse during the crackdown.

1541: Gonzalo Pizarro left for an expedition into the interior of the continent, in search of cinnamon. They cross the Andes and reach the Río Napo, after losing 140 of the 220 Spaniards and 3000 of the 4000 expedition Indians. Having discovered that false cinnamon, Pizarro burned and eaten by his dogs his Indian guides.

June 24, 1542: Francisco de Orellana faces in the Amazon region a people ruled by warrior women, he called Amazons.

April 21, 1545: Opening at the foot of Cerro Rico (rich mountain), the Potosí silver mines in Peru (currently Bolivia), by Juan de Villarroel. For nearly 30 years, the Potosi mines, Indians impose their own methods of extraction, the occupants are unable to control. It was not until 1574, when introducing technical amalgam, that the Spaniards can break the control that the Indians have on silver production.

1545: Assassination of Manco Inca Yupanqui by a conquistador who handed him a trap by treachery. Beginning of the reign of his son Sayri Tupac Inca ruler of Vilcabamba (completed in 1560).

1545 smallpox outbreak in Mexico killing 800,000 Indians.

November 8, 1546: Mayan revolt in Yucatán. End 1546, the Spaniards finally submit the Maya.

1548: Revolt of blacks in Santo Domingo.

April 1549: Pedro de Valdivia is back in Chile. During his absence, La Serena was burned by Promaucas from the south (January) and Coquimbo revolted. Valdivia punishes the guilty and recover from the order in the colony.

February 22, 1550: The Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the Bio Bio, in the territory of the Araucanians. These come together to form an army of 4,000 men under the command of toqui Ayavilu under the influence of the wise Colocolo. Valdivia succeeded in defeating the Andalion the plain with his cavalry and firearms. Ayavilu killed and prisoners are released with Araucan hands and noses cut off. Valdivia comes into Araucania where he founded several cities protected by three bunkers, Arauco, Tucapel and Puren

August 15, 1550 -end September 1550: First Session of the Valladolid controversy which concerns the status of American Indians and opposes Bartolomé de Las Casas and theologians (they belong to humanity What treatment are they??) Sepulveda before Emperor Charles V. The controversy turns to the advantage of Las Casas (his arguments are in the interest of the monarch who wishes divest the conquerors of the capacity to treat the Indians as they wish in order to submit them directly, on behalf of the Church).

November 1550: The Chichimec Indians begin to attack the mule caravans loaded with supplies to the Zacatecas silver mines opened by the Spaniards in Mexico in 1546. Beginning of the great Chichimec war ravaging northern New Spain until 1600.

December 25, 1553, Chile: Caupolicán Araucanian designate as head and attack the fort of Tucapel. Pedro de Valdivia, believing in a single skirmish, walking on the besieged fort with thirty riders and some Indian auxiliaries. It is the strong garrison massacred and burned. Beset by Araucanian, Spaniards are decimated with the exception of their leader and father Poza, who will die of horrible tortures suites. Araucans, advised by Lautaro, former Yanacona (servant) of Valdivia were able to seize horses for use against the Spaniards. In February 1554, Arauco War: offensive Araucanians in Chile, led by Caupolicán, advised by Colocolo and young Lautaro. Six hundred elite fighters, backed by thousands of auxiliaries, walk north. The city of Valdivia resists, but Concepcion had to surrender after the Battle of Marihueñu (26 February). Francisco de Villagra defends during the Bio Bio and Lautaro was killed while trying to cross the river (1st April 1557). Caupolican then merely to defend its border, launching sporadic raids north of the Bio Bio. April 1, 1557 War of Arauco, Chile: death in battle of Mapuche leader Lautaro.

November 7, 1557: Battle of Lagunillas and Bío Bío. Garcia Mendoza decides to take Araucans cuffed, and landed at Concepción pack Araucans on the banks of Lake Lagunilla. The head Araucan Galvarino’s hands are cut before being released.

November 30, 1557: Garcia Mendoza is again victorious in the plain of Caupolicán Melirupu (Millarapue), releasing pressure from Valdivia Indians and the coast. To control the Araucania, he built the fortified town of Cañete and entrusted Alonso de Reinoso.

January 1558 - February 1558, Arauco War: Caupolicán, Chief Araucans is taken and executed while trying to take Cañete. The indigenous resistance to the Spanish power in Chile continues. Nangoniel will be killed and sixteen years trying to remove a small fort, Quintunguenu will head Sotomayo captain Janequeo, a woman held in check the Spanish troops.

November 26, 1569: Francisco de Toledo, appointed Viceroy of Peru, arrived in Lima (completed in 1581). He began the integration and exploitation of the indigenous population, particularly through a policy of reduction of old villages that breaks the old organization in ayllus. A ayllu (original Quechua and Aymara word) is a community composed of several families whose members consider that they have a common origin (real or fictitious) working collectively in an area of common property. This form of social organization was one of the most present in the Andean region in pre-Columbian times.

January 9, 1570: Tribunal creation of the Inquisition in Lima, Peru. March 20, 1570: in Brazil, a decree guarantees the freedom of the Indians, but the law and the will to apply it will not be sufficient to prevent the violence they continue to suffer. The law allows the settlers to reduce slavery Indians only in case of just war or Indian demand or if he fled a "aldeia" and remains absent for more than a year.

May 1571, revolt of Indians in Peru: Inca Titu Cusi (1560-1571) perhaps dies poisoned between March and June. Early reign of Túpac Amaru, the last Inca ruler, it will be executed in 1572.

June 24, 1572: the Spaniards enter Vilcabamba, the last Inca stronghold, deserted by its population.

September 22, 1572: Francisco de Toledo Túpac Amaru executed the last Inca Quechua, ending the Inca resistance in Peru.

February 28, 1574: first bonfire of the Inquisition in Mexico. 1576 Mexico: smallpox epidemic killed more than two million Indians in the dioceses of Mexico, Michoacan, Puebla and Oaxaca.

August 17, 1585: Richard Grenville and seven chartered vessels dock Walter Raleigh in Roanoke to organize the colonization of Virginia for England. The Indians meet to show they are hospitable, but following the theft of a silver cup by one of them, plunders and Grenville fire their village. July 22, 1587: a group of English colonists tried to settle in the Roanoke colony deserted, North Carolina.

January 1, 1590, Brazil: Christophe de Barros pushes in the varzea Potiipeba (Sergipe) an output of the cacique Mbaepeva and enters the enclosure defended by it. The Indians are totally defeated, dying in 1600 and 4000 were captured.

March 15, 1603 - September 20, 1603 Honfleur: Samuel de Champlain travel to Canada. He takes possession of Newfoundland and Acadia. Beginning of French colonization in North America, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New France.

April 10, 1606: King Jacques I of England granted a charter that gives the right to the American coast between 34 ° and 45 ° latitude to two companies (London and Plymouth).

July 30, 1609: Samuel de Champlain and his men confront the Iroquois at the site of the future Fort Carillon, now Crown Point, New York. Champlain points his musket and fired on one of the Iroquois. Two are killed suddenly. The Iroquois are terrified.

June 10, 1610: the fleet of Sir De La Warr arrived in Virginia with supplies and new settlers and reoccupied Jamestown, which then has 300 inhabitants.

August 9, 1610, First Anglo-Powhatan War: Jamestown settlers attacked the Indian village of Paspahegh. During the famine in Jamestown during the winter, some settlers fled to the Indian chief Powhatan for food. When summer comes, the governor of the colony, Thomas Gates, asked Powhatan to return the fugitives. When he refused, a group of soldiers attack a village, killing fifteen Indians, burning homes and vandalize the maize. They grab the queen of the tribe and children and massacred them.

April 5, 1614: Pocahontas, a North American Indian princess marries English colonist of Virginia, John Rolfe.

10-16 October 1615: Samuel de Champlain and his Huron allies vain besiege an Iroquois fort; hurt, Champlain must winter in Huronia.

1616: A smallpox epidemic decimates the Indian population in New England. 1617: The settlers of Virginia’s first major ship loading tobacco to England. Introduction of the indenture Virginia, temporary easement agreement, by which a man agrees to work for a limited time on the land of a settler in exchange for his travel and obtaining a freehold land at the end of the contract. The contract becomes widespread concern as to one third of the population of New England. These servants under contracts, men and women, traveling in appalling conditions and are sold at their arrival as slaves.

February 1618: Samuel de Champlain offers to Louis XIII in a memorandum to evangelize the natives of Quebec and establish important centers. The King of France agrees March 12.

November 21, 1620: arrived on the Mayflower, caught in the storm, the Pilgrim Fathers, 102 English Puritans landed in America (New England), Cape Cod and founded December 20 Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts first city outside the concession granted by King (1622). The Pilgrim’s fathers (41 in all) have fled Nottingham (1608), to stand at Leiden in the United Provinces. They signed an agreement, the Mayflower Compact, which is the basis of a Calvinist democracy.

In 1621, the Mayflower settlers were saved from starvation by the chief Massasoit. This is the origin of Thanksgiving. When the Fathers Pilgrims and the Mayflower colonists, settled, Massasoit, Indian chief father called "King Philip" great sachem of the Wampanoag tribe, formed an alliance with them during a meal which the Pilgrim Fathers the had invited him and 90 of his men, to celebrate the first harvest of the Plymouth Colony in 1621. During this feast, turkeys were offered (Episode commemorated today by the Thanksgiving holiday). The chief Massasoit repeated the same rite of alliance with members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638.

March 22, 1622: Indian attacks against the Jamestown colony (late in 1644). Algonquin Indians massacred 347 settlers in Virginia. Survivors replicate ruthlessly.

1623: An English colony was founded at the location of Portsmouth in New Hampshire in North America.

May 1624: the Dutch West India Company sent the first contingent of 30 families of settlers to New Netherland, composed mostly of Walloon Protestants. Eighteen of them date back to the Hudson and founded Fort Orange near the Albany today. Settlers temporarily occupy Noten Eyland (Governors Island) in the delta of the Hudson, before settling in Manhattan the following year. May 13, 1625, Whitehall: a royal proclamation declared that Virginia, Bermuda and New England are part of the British Empire. A colonial administration is instituted. Virginia became the British Crown colony. It is placed under the authority of a governor appointed by the Crown, flanked by a Council and a House elected by the settlers.

1626: Massacre of 2000 Carib Indian Bloody Point by the British and French settlers. Genocide Kalinago Indian (Caribbean people) on St. Kitts Island.

June 12, 1630: colonization of Massachusetts Bay by the British company of the same name. Each shareholder received 200 acres of land to settle. John Winthrop became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It justifies its occupation of Indian territories by the fact that the land is legally "vacant." It pretext that the Indians do not have "submitted" the earth, and therefore have a "natural" right on it and not a "real" law.

January 26, 1636: Charles Lienard of the Olive committed (for France) hostilities against Guadeloupe in the Caribbean (late in 1639). Their extermination begins.

July 20, 1636: the merchant of Massachusetts John Oldham is killed by Indian Block Island. August 1636: following the murder of a white merchant, John Stone, troublemaker and Indian kidnapper turned out, by the Pequot in Connecticut in 1634, and that of John Oldham, a punitive expedition left Boston to attack the Narragansett Indians Block Island that we take for Pequot. The Indians took refuge in the forests and the English are investing deserted villages, destroying crops.

December 13, 1636: Foundation of a Massachusetts militia, originally from the National Guard of the United States, against the Pequot.

The Pequot tribe is a Native American tribe who lived in the seventeenth century in the Connecticut region of north-eastern United States. They belonged to the Algonquian language group. They were almost all decimated during the Pequot War (1637) and especially during the Mystic massacre opposed to the English colonists.

May 26, 1637: Captain John Mason attacks a Pequot village on the Mystic River, killing more than 600 victims. The war against the Pequot culminates in New England (Connecticut). Almost total extermination of the tribe. The English avoid direct confrontation and massacre civilians. They offer a premium discount on the scalp for every Indian killed.

February 26, 1638: Boston, William Pierce Captain Desire, built in 1636 in Marblehead, near Salem, imports the first cargo of slaves from Barbados, he exchanges against Native American slaves, establishing the first written records presence of black slaves in Massachusetts about 1638.

September 21, 1638: Hartford Treaty; end of the war against the Pequot in New England (Connecticut) started in May 1637. The Pequot survivors are sold as slaves. The language and the use of the name Pequot becomes off-the-law in the English colonies. 13 June 1641: start of the first French-Iroquois war (ending in 1645). Despite numerous peace treaties interrupt the war will last 25 years.

February 25, 1643: massacre by the Dutch 80 peaceful Indians refugees Pavonia, New Netherland after an attack Mohawk. Start of the War of Kieft, general insurrection of eleven Indian tribes against the settlers (1643-1645).

June 9, 1643: Quebec, the Iroquois ambushes waging a war against the position of Ville-Marie (Montreal). Three settlers were killed and three captured.

September 1643: execution by the Mohegan chief Miantonomo. Beginning of a war between the Indians and the English Naragansetts New England (completed in 1645).

March 30, 1644, Quebec: dogs, including the famous dog Pilote, unearth hidden Iroquois in the surroundings of Ville-Marie. Maisonneuve preparing the attack. It turns out however that the Iroquois are among 200. The French must quickly retreat.

April 18, 1644: Indian attack in Virginia. 500 settlers were killed.

September 20, 1645, Canada: peace between the French colonists and the Mohawks (Iroquois). It will only last a year.

October 5, 1646: peace treaty between the English and the Powhatan Indians in Virginia, signed after Governor Sir William Berkeley had captured their leader Opechancanough.

October 15, 1646, Quebec: resumption of hostilities with the Mohawks (Iroquois) when the latter captures the Jesuit Father Isaac Jogues and Jean de La Lande. The Mohawks are realizing that the French returning from Europe are causing deaths in their community (microbes). To ward off death, a Mohawk kills an ax Jogue the father (October 18) and the next day Jean de La Lande.

16-19 March 1649, Canada: the Hurons were defeated by the Iroquois League. The Iroquois attacked the Huron missions of St. Ignatius and St. Mary.

July 26, 1651: the Iroquois attacked the Hotel Dieu Jeanne Mance in Montreal.

September 1658: expulsion and massacre of the Carib Indians in Martinique by the colonial army. This war against the whites Carib Indians, leading to their physical elimination, doubling in 20 years Martinique surface of white planters

May 2, 1660, Quebec: Long Sault battle. May 1, Adam Dollard des Ormeaux and 16 of his friends arrive at Long Sault and wait, in the remains of an abandoned fence, the Iroquois (who had declared war on whites) dating the Ottawa River. Not knowing that the group has about 300 Iroquois men, they barricade themselves in their stockade where they will be under siege for a week. The Huron defecting, water starts to run out, and when a powder keg explodes in the fence, the besieged fell to the Iroquois.

1662: war between the Dutch and the Delaware Tribe of Indians of Esopus Esopus called war that ends May 15, 1664.

July 8, 1667, Quebec: peace treaty between France and the Iroquois.

April 1670: the British colonial establishment based in Charleston (Charles Town) in South Carolina. This settlement is based on the trafficking of Native Americans Carolina to the Caribbean to represent a total of 24 000-51 000 Indian.

1674: Revolt of blacks in the British West Indies.

June 20, 1675: Start of the "King Philip War" against the Indians, Massachusetts (completed in October 1676). A first war takes place in 1675 after the English Restoration, the King Philip son (Metacomet or Metacam), crowned in 1662, being forced to disarm, while territorial tensions between settlers and Indians grew louder. The murder of an Indian convert to Protestantism led to the execution of three Wampanoags, combined with white.

In June 1675 the Swansea Wampanoags burned in retaliation. The Nipmucks Narragansets and join them. For their part, the Mohawks refused to join King Philip. The latter, former mercenary Dutch colonies, are indeed passed to the British who bought New York to the Dutch.

In 1676: the Narangasetts are defeated and their leader killed in April Canonchet. In August, King Philipp is betrayed and killed. This war has made 600 deaths on the side of the English settlers and the 4000 Native American side.

Further south, at the same time, trafficking in Native Carolina to the Caribbean is growing, while the same year begins in 1676 in Virginia revolt Nathaniel Bacon.

March 26, 1676, King Philip’s War: a company of 65 English settlers and twenty Indian allies led by Captain Michael Pierce is decimated in an ambush on the banks of the Blackstone River, near present Central Falls, by the head Narragansett Canonchet. Three days after the attack and set fire Narragansett Providence.

April 21, 1676: Fighting Sudbury raid victorious Indians against the English colonists in the War of King Philip.

1676: A skirmish between Susquehannock Indians and settlers of Virginia led to the massacre of Nathaniel Bacon Ocaneechees.

June 1676: The revolt of Nathaniel Bacon, is triggered in the British colony of Virginia by whites living on the border with the Indians, later joined by black slaves and white servants. She bursts about Indian threat in the context of agricultural crisis and misery. The whites of the Border believe the governor of Jamestown, William Berkeley, must conduct a total war against the Doegs who are engaged in guerrilla warfare as a result of disputes with the settlers. Nathaniel Bacon, elected to the House of Burgesses of Virginia in the spring and cousin Frances Culpeper, wife of Governor William Berkeley, advocates the establishment of armed units to fight the Indians. The Governor blames the rebellion and made the trap. Two thousand settlers of Virginia Jamestown walk immediately to give him their support. Berkeley is free Bacon after a public repentance promise. But Bacon escapes, reform its militias and began to harass the Indians. In July, he wrote a "Declaration of the People" who blames his unjust tax administration, the favoritism, its grip on the fur trade and its abandonment of the farmers faced the Indians. Bacon then attacks the pamunkeys Indians, considered harmless, kills eight, taking prisoners and seized their property

August 12, 1676: the death of the leader of the Wampanoag Indians, Metacom (said the King Philip), ending the war on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay. The English, victorious, lost six hundred and three thousand Indians were massacred. The defeat of the Indians in New England gives European settlers control of the North American coast.

August 10, 1680: Indian Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico, Santa Fe taking 21 August. Massacre many Spanish settlers. The others fled. The Spanish institutions are destroyed (late in 1692). The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Pope’s rebellion was an uprising of the people of the Pueblos against colonization of the Spaniards in America, in New Spain in the province of New Mexico. Although Pueblos managed to put to flight the Spaniards by forcing them to temporarily leave the area, they took advantage of internal divisions which agitated pueblo nation after the revolt to recover their colony in 1692.

1 January 1682: following the revolt of the Pueblos, the inhabitants of the Spanish mission Isleta moved to El Paso, the first Spanish settlement in Texas.

June 23, 1683: William Penn Shackamaxon signs the peace treaty with the Indians of Delaware (Tamanend).

4 to 23 July 1687, North America: Denonville, for France, with 800 soldiers and 400 militiamen 1100 Indians, ravaged Seneca country, preventing the Iroquois and English to French to remove the control of trade furs.

November 3, 1687: A raid 100-200 is pushed Iroquois at Fort Chambly (left bank of the Richelieu River in Quebec). 4-5 August 1689: Canadian 97 massacre by the Iroquois in Lachine (Montreal area).

September 24, 1689: alliance between the English and the Iroquois against France. Beginning of the First War intercolonial in New France, or French-Iroquois war in the war part of the League of Augsburg. It ends in 1697 with the Treaty of Rijswijk.

The Beaver Wars were a series of wars between the French settlers located in Canada and the tribe of the Five Nations (later six), known as the Iroquois. They have experienced a peak in the late 1680s, but started much earlier. The Iroquois are historically close to their trading partners of New Netherland, Dutch until 1666, then English. They entered the war against France from 1689. When the French arrived, the Iroquois are organized into a confederation of "Five Nations": the tribes of Mohawk (Mohawk), established in the west of the current New York , that of Onneyouts (Oneida), Onondaga (Onondaga), Cayuga (Cayuga) and finally that of Seneca (Seneca). The Beaver Wars had mainly commercial reasons, the Iroquois fighting against the Hurons and the French settlements in the Saint Lawrence Valley to control the fur trade from New France and Dutch colonies in New York and New Jersey.

February 18, 1690, Anglo-French war: the French and their Indian allies attack came from Montreal Colaer (Schenectady) in the Province of New York; they burn the city and massacred the population.

1692: Revolt of blacks in the British West Indies.

January 25, 1693: from Montreal of a French expedition against the Iroquois. Three Iroquois villages north of Albany are attacked and destroyed by the French, who are 300 prisoners (16-18 February). The expeditionary force was attacked by the English in his retirement.

August 4, 1696, Beaver Wars: Frontenac, Callières and Ramezay, with the help of 2000 soldiers, militiamen and Amerindians, destroy a village abandoned by the Onondagas (Iroquois) and ravage all the crops of its inhabitants, nearly Oswego.

January 7, 1699: peace treaty Mare point in Casco Bay (Maine), between the settlers of Massachusetts and the principal leaders of the confederation "Wabanaki" (Abenaki).

August 4, 1701: signing of the Great Peace of Montreal, the peace treaty between the French and Iroquois in New France (North America). The Five Nations Iroquois promised to remain neutral in any war between the English and French ..

May 15, 1702: Britain and the Netherlands officially declared war on France and Spain (War of the Spanish Succession). The hostilities begin between French and English settlers in Acadie (1703), between English settlers Carolina and Spanish Florida.

May 20, 1702, Spanish Florida: Creeks Indians, encouraged by English settlers Carolina, attacked the mission of Santa Fe de Toloca in Timucua territory.

1702: Revolt of blacks in the British West Indies.

1703: The scalp (word of Scandinavian origin, and provided by the British, and not of Indian origin) of a native (indigenous) is paid by the colonial authorities to £ 40. The scalping is a warrior practice of tear all or part of the scalp (scalp in English) of an opponent, dead or alive. The scalp is preserved as a war trophy to show the number of defeated opponents. In the Western imagination, the scalping is primarily associated with American Indians in the Old West, but this practice has been established by English settlers and soldiers ... "The April 5, 1794, a correspondent Centinel [a Cincinnati newspaper] noted that Colombia, an observation post not far away, offering rewards for scalps of Indians. " In 1750, the scalp of an adult Indian (male over twelve years) brought by a white settler paid £ 100, that of a woman or a child under twelve, £ 50.

February 29, 1704: French and Indian attack on the British position Deerfield (currently in Massachusetts).

February 28, 1708: slave revolt in Long Island (New York); White 7 killed, four slaves, including an Indian and a woman, were executed.

August 29, 1708: looting of the British colony of Haverhill by Franco-Indian.

1711: Carolina Tuscarora War against Native American who protected runaway slaves.

April 6, 1712: slave revolt in the colony of New York. Some 25 slaves and two Indians burned a building and killed nine white. Captured by the soldiers, they are judged and 21 of them were executed. Herbert Aptheker counted in the eighteenth century in the British colonies in North America almost two hundred and fifty conspiracies and revolts of black slaves representing at least ten people.

April 17, 1712, Caroline: surrender of Fort Hancock; Tuscarora must accept a humiliating peace. The war resumed in the fall.

May 22, 1712: Start of the Tzeltal rebellion in Chiapas.

May 1712: First Fox War. Foxes, Indian Nation west of Lake Michigan, trying to seize the Detroit station near which they have recently established. The Ottawas and Illinois lend a hand to Dubuisson and its some 20 soldiers against attack. Foxes are defeated.

20-23 March 1713: surrender of Fort Neoheroka. End of the Tuscarora War (which took place since autumn 1711). 1000 Indians were captured and enslaved, 1400 died during the conflict.

March 26 1713: the Treaty of the asiento, the UK ensures for thirty years the monopoly of the slave trade with Latin America and became the first slave nation. She gets Spain permission to send a vessel per year in the Spanish colonies (permission ship).

April 26, 1715: The War Yamasee South Carolina (completed in 1717) is triggered by Amerindians who refused to be enslaved.

1 May 1716: the French commanded by Louvigny, leave from Montreal with 225 soldiers and militiamen and several Native Americans. In June-July, they attacked the Foxes in their territory of Wisconsin and get a capitulation to the Butte des Morts.

January 28, 1731, Louisiana: Natchez to surrender Sicily Island. 427 Natchez are captured. In May, 160 of them were sold as slaves and deported to Santo Domingo.

April 19, 1735: a Franco-Amerindian expedition under Noyelles, assails the Fox and Sauk in their fort River Moines (Iowa). After a few skirmishes, a treaty is concluded.

May 26, 1736: Battle of Ackia between the French and Chickasaw Indians in the present state of Mississippi.

June 6, 1736: Massacre Lake of the Woods in Canada; Aulneau father, the eldest son of La Verendrye and twenty-one of their companions die attacked by the Sioux.

February 22, 1740: The French Pierre Céloron Blainville, with hundreds of soldiers and Canadian militiamen and 200 Amerindian allies, attack the Chickasaws Indians (near the present city of Memphis, Tennessee). They signed peace

February 26, 1753: the Guarani refuse to be moved to the other side of the Rio Uruguay under the Madrid Treaty of 1750 and, with the help of a part of the Jesuit missionaries, undertake guerrilla resistance.

June 1753, New York: Hendrick Head and sixteen other chiefs Mohawks break peace (Covenant Chain) with white settlers. Allows a scam to steal some 130 000 ha of land the Mohawks in New York, which ended the peaceful coexistence between the Indians and the white population of the province.

May 28, 1754: Battle of Jumonville Glen (Louis XV French soldiers against those of George Washington). The Indians of the Ohio Valley line up alongside the great majority of the French, who are mainly traders and do not actually occupy Indian lands. However, the British obviously covet their hunting grounds and their habitat. The opposite occurs in the Mississippi Valley. April 29, 1754: first clash in the war of Guarani in Paraguay between Portuguese troops and Guarani Indians (late in 1756). On 7 September, the Guarani prevent the troops of General Freire Gomez Portuguese spend the Rio Jacuí and Portuguese withdrew November 21. Andonaegui, head of the Spanish side, leaving Buenos Aires on May 2 and march north to Guarupa stream, then decides to withdraw in August before the difficulties of the terrain. In October he was attacked Guarani. He is back in Buenos Aires March 7, 1755.

1754-1756: War between France and England in America. February 10, 1756: the Guarani are crushed by the Portuguese and Spanish troops at the battle of coalition Caibaté. End of the war the Guarani in Paraguay. Thousands of Indians were massacred and the survivors must take refuge in the forest.

3-9 August 1757: French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, allied with Native Americans, takes Fort William Henry on Lake George, which controls the upper valley of the Hudson (August 9).

June 2, 1763, Pontiac Rebellion: Ojibwe seized Fort Michilimackinac. Pontiac’s rebellion, conspiracy Pontiac Pontiac war or opposed the British Empire to a confederation of Native American tribes of the Great Lakes region, the Country of Illinois and Ohio Valley between 1763 and 1766. The conflict was caused by unfavorable policies qu’imposaient Britain after defeating the French during the War of the Conquest (1754-1760). Warriors of many tribes joined the Indian uprising whose aim was to drive the British troops and settlers in the area. War is called the name of the head outaouais Pontiac, the most prominent Native American leaders during the conflict. The war began in May 1763 when the Native Americans, offended by the British General Jeffery Amherst policies, attacked several British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed and hundreds of settlers were killed or captured, while a larger number left the area. The 1764 British expeditions led peace talks which lasted two years. The Indians were unable to drive the British but the uprising pushed the British government to change the originally political conflict.

July 31, 1763: Pontiac victory Bloody Run near Detroit.

5-6 August 1763: Pontiac defeat at the Battle of Bushy Run in Westmoreland County (Pennsylvania).

September 14, 1763: Battle of Devil’s Hole. The Senecas beat the British at Devil’s Hole, near Niagara Falls.

December 14, 1763: the "Paxton Boys" peaceful Indians to kill six Conestoga, Pennsylvania. 27, the fourteen survivors sheltered in Lancaster prison were massacred in their turn.

17-20 October 1764: peace treaty between the British Colonel Henry Bouquet and Shawnee, Seneca and Lenape. Bouquet demands the return of all British captives.

July 24, 1766: Chief Pontiac outaouais sign peace with the British at Oswego. End of Pontiac rebellion.

November 5, 1768: the Iroquois are giving the Ohio Valley to the British colonies in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix Treaty or Six Nations (William Johnson).

April 20, 1769: Chief of Outaouais, Pontiac, ally of the French, was assassinated in Cahokia. He mobilized all the tribes of the Great Lakes region against the British after the victory of the latter over the French sealed by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. This revolt forced King George III to the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which stated Unlimited Indian rights to the land they occupied and prohibited any new settlement beyond the Appalachians, causing the discontent of American merchants and speculators. Pontiac was assassinated in 1769 by an Illinois Native American in the pay of American merchants. Pontiac’s assassination marks the beginning of a myth. Despite the failure of his rebellion, he inspired many American Indians in their resistance to European domination.

December 22, 1769 Daniel Boone was captured by the Shawnee during an expedition in the current Kentucky. He managed to escape. March 5, 1770: Boston Massacre. British troops fired on a crowd demonstrating against import taxes.

July 17, 1771: massacre of a group of Inuit at Bloody Falls by Chipewyan warriors led by Matonabbee guide during the expedition of Samuel Hearne on the Coppermine River. December 16, 1773: Boston Tea Party. To protest against taxes, bostonniens disguised as Indians threw a cargo of 342 chests of tea overboard in Boston; this event causes the reaction of the Conservative cabinet of Lord North who vote several law that ruin the trade of Boston and liberties of Massachusetts. This is the beginning of the unrest in the British colonies of North America.

1774: Lord Dunmore’s War. In spring 1774 Shawnee trying to get rid of the British colonists. May 3: in retaliation, settlers kill eleven Mingo. Logan kills thirteen settlers in Pennsylvania. Lord John Murray Dunmore, governor of Virginia, using the settlers of Pennsylvania repression seven Mingo villages are destroyed, a fort is built in Little Kanawha River. October 10: Battle of Point Pleasant, the British defeated the Shawnee. General Amherst gave the order to distribute smallpox-infected blankets. Thousands of Delaware Indians are infected and spread the "smallpox" to other Indian nations. In these circumstances peace is imposed. Virginia militiamen destroyed during negotiations Shwanees several villages.

1775: Beginning of the War of Independence of the United States of America (completed in 1783).

June 6, 1775, Brazil: Indian slavery was abolished, replaced by a servile labor from Angola, another Portuguese colony of African coasts. Until 1850 the black slave trade, will touch nearly three and a half million human beings who will be uprooted from the African continent to be enslaved and sold to Brazilian farmers.

1778: start of "Indian wars". Native American wars are all wars between European settlers and the US government to the peoples North American Indians, from 1778 to 1890. Although no war was officially declared by the United States Congress, the army was constantly at war against these peoples from 1778. They were extended in the nineteenth century by violence and numerous killings by both sides. The American historian Howard Zinn reminds us that "US government [has] signed more than four hundred treaties with the Native Americans and [have] violated all, without exception." All of the combats and massacres delivered between the United States and the Indians made 19,000 victims among whites and about 30,000 on the side of the Indians, men, women and children. Between 9 and 11.5 million at the end of the fifteenth century, the Indians of North America are more than 250,000 in 1890. This demographic massacre unparalleled in history is mainly due to epidemics and famines caused particular by deportations and intensive hunting of bison whose population rose from 60 million in the early sixteenth century to 1000 at the end of the nineteenth.

March 7, 1778: during his third trip, James Cook reached the coast of North America off the current Oregon. He looks in vain passage Northwest. However, along the coast to Alaska, engages in what is now known as Cook Strait and continues its way north, back to Bering Strait that passes before being forced to turn round to the ice of the ice cap (18 August). He then hands the course towards the Sandwich Islands, where he is forced to overwinter. Relations with Hawaiians degrade gradually: victim of the theft of a boat, Cook wants his well and he is stabbed 14 February 1779 during a brief clash with the inhabitants of the island.

November 4, 1780: Condorcanqui, son of a cacique of Tinta, took the name of Túpac Amaru II, proclaimed himself Inca and took the lead of the revolt of Indians in Peru. He grabs a corregidor it does run (4 October). After beating a militia near Cuzco November 18, he was defeated by the troops of visitador Arreche, imprisoned and sentenced to death (1781).

May 18, 1781: the last Inca Túpac Amaru II is quartered and beheaded in Cusco in Peru before all the assembled population. His cousin, Tupac Amaru III, takes time head of the revolt but was caught and suffered the same punishment in 1783.

15 November 1781: Chief of Aymara rebels of Upper Peru Túpac Katari runs in La Paz.

1783: The Indian population Churchill (Canada) has been decimated by smallpox and starvation due to lack of normal hunting supplies powder and lead. Matonabbee committed suicide on hearing of the capture of the fort, and the rest of the major Indian Churchill had moved to other sites. Canadians settlers entered the home of the Chippewas, and the fight has been more intense than ever.

1815 Several hundred Missouri Shawnee left the United States in 1815 and, with some Shawnee Delaware, established colonies in Texas, then controlled by Spain. These traditionalists had decided to leave the Great Lakes to escape assimilation and perpetuate their autonomy. However this tribe, which was named Absentee Shawnee ("absent Shawnee"), was again expelled in 1839, when Texas won its independence three years earlier. She then moved to Oklahoma, near the present city of Shawnee and there was joined in 1845 by Shawnee from Kansas that shared their traditional visions and beliefs.

In 1817, the Shawnee in Ohio signed the Treaty of Fort Meigs which provided for the transfer of their remaining lands in exchange for three reservations Wapaughkonetta, Hog Creek (near Ada) and Lewistown.

1825: After the Treaty of St. Louis, the Missouri Shawnee 1400 were deported from Cape Girardeau to southeastern Kansas, close to the Neosho River. In 1833, only the Black Bob Band resisted. They settled in northeastern Kansas near Olathe and along the Kaw River near Shawnee.

About 200 of the Ohio Shawnee followed the Prophet Tenskwatawa and joined their brothers and sisters of Kansas in 1826, but the majority followed Black Hoof, who fought all attempts to give up the Ohio homeland. In 1831 the Seneca-Shawnee Lewistown group joined the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). After the death of Black Hoof, the 400 remaining Wapaughkonetta Shawnee Creek and Hog abandon their land and move to the Shawnee Reserve in Kansas.

In 1830, the Indian Removal Act inaugurates ever westward Amerindian populations travel policy: the then President, Andrew Jackson, passed a law deporting the Indians living east of the Mississippi to the West of the river, mainly in Oklahoma, to exploit the gold on their territories, in Ohio and install them migrants from Europe. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and causes wars with the Cherokees until 1838.

Until 1850, 100,000 Indians were deported. The most famous episode of the Indian Removal, is probably that of the Trail of Tears in 1838-1839.Cette forced deportation caused at least 4,000 deaths due to cold, disease (cholera) and exhaustion.

August 17, 1862: revolt of Sioux. More than 700 settlers perish. The vanquished Indians own more than Dakota and Montana.

1865: Revolt of the Sioux to keep a track of pioneers crossing their hunting grounds.

After the independence of the United States, the war against the Indians unabated

The thirteen American colonies have 4 million people in 1776, the year the Declaration of Independence.

• 1778: first treaty of the United States with an Indian tribe, the tribe of Delaware.

• 1779: During the Revolutionary War the Continental Army commander George Washington ordered that the territories of the Iroquois, allied to the British, are conquered and devastated.

• 1784: Second Treaty of Fort Stanwix. The Shwanees give all their lands to the east and south of Ohio

• July 13, 1787: The Northwest Ordinance (Northwest Ordinance) opens the colonization of the Northwest Territories, between Appalachian, Great Lakes,

• Mississippi and Tennessee. No Indian territory or not they will be removed without their consent, except after a war declared by Congress. No war was never declared by Congress to tribes.

• 1789: the Constitution reaffirms the principles of the Northwest Ordinance.

The War of the Young America (1790-1794)

• Following the Northwest Ordinance, the settlers started moving more and more on the territories of the Shawnee tribe, Outaouais and Miami. These tribes are united to fight the federal armed. This war lasted from 1790 to 1795. He unrolled it several major battles such as those described below.

• Chief Little Turtle (Little Turtle), head of the Miami tribes, inflicting a defeat in 1790 to US troops on the Miami River.

o November 4, 1791: the Battle of the Wabash, Little Turtle Indians surprise and defeat Major Arthur St. Clair, losing 610 men out of 1300; Indians have 61 dead and wounded. This is the worst American defeat in the Indian Wars.

o August 20, 1794: General Anthony Wayne defeated Blue Jacket at the Battle of Fallen Timbers (which took place on a windfall, shortly after a storm uprooted many trees), the Ohio Valley. Following this defeat, the Indians lost the war which allowed the settlers to move into the new territory of the Northwest Ordinance.

o 1795 with the signing of the Treaty of Greenville, Little Turtle and ten other Indian nations surrender their rights on the Ohio and Indiana. But Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, and his brother Tenskwatawa refuse to sign the treaty. They then organize resistance against the expansion of settlers westward.

• 1800: there were about 75 million bison on the Great Plains. They were the first resource of the Sioux, Pied-Noirs, and other tribes. To supply the workers of the railway and tourists pulling the train, the white hunters reduce the number to 800 in 1890.

• 1803: Napoleon Bonaparte sells the French Louisiana territory to the Americans: it opens the door to forced migration for Native Americans.

• June 7, 1803: First Treaty of Fort Wayne.

• 1804: Congress authorizes the President to negotiate with the tribes to exchange their territories against reserves.

• 1805: Shipping Lewis and Clark from St. Louis to the Pacific, often aided by American Indian tribes (including the Nez Perce).

• 1806: start of deportations of Indians. Although they are sometimes performed at the conclusion of a treaty, the Indians have always sustained them because they were threatened with punitive actions if they did not sign the Treaty [ref. required]. From 1806 to 1830, 50 tribes were deported.

• September 30, 1809: The Second Treaty of Fort Wayne (after that of June 7, 1803) allows the United States to obtain 11 600 km2 of the Wabash Valley, abandoned by the Delaware Indians, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Miami, Eel River Weeas, Kickapoo, Piankashaws and Kaska.

• August 10, 1810: Massacre of Ywahoo Falls: US settlers massacred women and children Cherokees.

• November 7, 1811: General Harrison inflicted a defeat on Shawnee led by Tenskwatawa brother of Tecumseh at the Battle of Tippecanoe, in the valley of the Wabash River (200 dead on both sides) and plundered the Indian city of Prophet’s town, the Indians have abandoned the fight for lack of ammunition.

War of 1812 (US-UK)

• July 12, 1812: ally of the British, the Indian Tecumseh ambushes at Brownstown, killing 20 American soldiers during the War of 1812.

• August 16, 1812: British and Tecumseh take Fort Detroit.

• May 13, 1813: Tecumseh defeated the Americans at the Battle of the Maumee River (near Toledo).

• October 5, 1813: Tecumseh was killed during the Battle of the Thames River; British General Henry Proctor fled.

• March 27, 1814: Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Tennessee) on Indian Creek. Following this battle, Andrew Jackson negotiates nine of the eleven treaties are gradually abandoning their land to the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creeks and Seminoles), so called because sedentary and practicing agriculture. From 1814 to 1824, members of these nations migrate voluntarily.

First Seminole War (1816-1832)

• The Seminoles were Creeks Indians across Florida in the 1700s, encouraged to settle as farmers by the Spanish, who hoped to stop the advance of the British south.

o 1816: the strong Seminole Apalachicola shaved by the Americans.

o December 1817: Andrew Jackson led US forces invading Florida.

o April 7, 1818: capture of St. Mark

o May 24: Pensacola decision.

o 22 February, 1819: Treaty of Adams-Onis: Spain ceded Florida to the United States.

• 1821: Sequoyah created the Cherokee alphabet. This invention demonstrates the progress of the Cherokee culture, people, farmers and artisans who quickly established schools in the early nineteenth century, open to boys and girls (something that shocked their neighbors in the United States). In addition, they welcomed the slaves escaped from plantations, although they charge themselves a form of slavery.

• March 11, 1824: Creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the successor to the Indian affairs committee, created to independence. It depends on the Ministry of War, and is responsible for releasing Indian lands for their exploitation by settlers.

• 1827: The Cherokees are a government, adopt a constitution and declared themselves independent. The US Supreme Court recognized this government but said the Cherokees under guardianship.

• 1828:

o Start of the publication of the Cherokee Phoenix, bilingual English-Cherokee Indian newspaper, published until 1834.

o Confiscation of Cherokee territories by the state of Georgia (14 000 hectares); these territories are divided into lots of 64 hectares distributed in a lottery; Indians can testify in court against Americans and can speak publicly against immigration.

• 1829: John Ross, Chief White Bird, Cherokee first elected leader, officially protested in Washington against such measures. Andrew Jackson replied that the Cherokees should emigrate to the west of the Mississippi.

• May 28, 1830: Indian Removal Act: President Andrew Jackson passed a law deporting the Indians living in the Mississippi River east to the west of the river, mainly in Oklahoma, to exploit the gold on their territories , Ohio and install them migrants from Europe. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and results in wars with the Cherokees until 1838. Until 1850, 100,000 Indians were deported.

• 1831: Supreme Court (Judgment Cherokee Nation against the State of Georgia) decides that the Cherokee Nation is not a sovereign nation or a foreign nation residing within the United States.

• 1832:

o Appointment of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the Ministry of War.

o The Supreme Court decides that the laws of Georgia can not be applied to the Cherokees, and that the federal government has obligation to uphold treaties with the Cherokee Nation. This decision was never implemented by President Jackson.

Northwest Black Hawk War (1832)

• 1832 Sauk warrior Black Hawk ("Black Hawk") tries to chase the settlers land of his people. Combined with Fox, he left the Iowa territory where his people lived since the Treaty of St. Louis (1805) to reclaim their ancestral lands.

o 6 April: 800 Sauk Indians crossed the Mississippi, causing panic among the settlers. General Edmund Gaines tries to negotiate, without success.

o May 14: Battle of Stillman’s Run, Black Hawk chases away the blue Tunics (who suffer the loss of twelve men, five against the Indians).

o July 28: at risk of starvation, Wisconsin Sauk down to iron Mississippi. 750 militiamen of General James Henry join: the Battle of Wisconsin Heights, there are 68 Indians to death.

o August 1: The Indians arrive in Mississippi and begin crossing the river. Under fire of a steam war ship, Black Hawk raises the flag of surrender, but the fire continues, killing 23 people among the Indians.

o August 2: Bad Axe Massacre River: Black Hawk is attacked by US troops who massacred 300 men, women and children Sauk. Some survivors who managed to cross the Mississippi were killed or captured by the Sioux.

o August 27: surrender of Black Hawk.

The "trail of tears" (1838)

• 29 December 1835: Treaty of New Echota: 300-500 of 17,000 Cherokees living east of the Mississippi (the Ridge delegation, led by John Ridge and Elias Cherokees Boudinot) sign to the whole nation a treaty gives the United States the land for five million dollars, in violation of laws Cherokees, and without a single elected among them. The Congress ratified the treaty the following year of a voice, despite the protests of John Ross. The 465 signatories Cherokees left for the west in 1837.

• 1836: According to the decision of the President of the Supreme Court John Marshall, Indian sovereign nations become dependent nations of the federal state.

• March 1838: the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson protested in a letter sent to President Martin Van Buren against this treaty.

• May 18, 1838: maturity of the Treaty of New Echota having arrived, General Winfried Scott begins to gather the Cherokees in 31 strong, with only the clothes they were wearing.

• End July 1838: They are then gathered in eleven camps designed for this purpose (10 in Tennessee, one in Alabama).

• About 3,000 Cherokees made by river route from June until September and arrived in the Indian Territory.

• October 16, 1838: departure of the Cherokees left the roads. They travel 1750 km, reached the Mississippi in November 5000 but the latter remain blocked on the eastern shore all winter. The first groups arrived in January in Fort Gibson.

• March 1839: arrival of the last Cherokees. Approximately 4000 of them at least, at the 8000, died on the way, along the Trail of Tears.

• June 1839: John Ridge and Elias Boudinot were assassinated.

The four other civilized nations were deported in the same way, and also knew their trail of Tears. This name comes from the compassionate tears shed by Americans who saw them pass in front of them. Some Cherokees managed to hide in the mountains, and Seminoles in the swamps of the Everglades.

Second Seminole War (1835-1842)

According to the same process as for the Cherokees, the government was signed to a minority of the Treaty of Payne Seminole Landing (1832), which required them to leave their land within three years. In 1835, the US Army was sent to enforce the treaty. At the height of the war, 10,000 regular soldiers and 30,000 militia clashed 5000 warriors who practiced a war of ambushes and hand blows, US losses went up to 1500 men.

• 1835: Major Francis Dade went from Fort Brooke to Fort King; 180 Seminoles attacked his column and exterminated, leaving only three survivors.

• December 25, 1837: At the Battle of Lake Okeechobee (in Slough Nubbins), Colonels Zachary Taylor (800 soldiers) and Richard Gentry (a volunteer regiment of Missouri), facing 380 Indians lost 26 soldiers and 112 wounded, 11 against the Indians.

• In St. Augustine, heads Wildcat and Osceola are captured for peace talks by General Jessup. Osceola died in prison in 1838.

• 1842 allow a truce negotiations, recognizing hunting and culture to Seminoles, without signing the Treaty. Many Seminoles, however, were sent to Indian Territory in Oklahoma in the following years.

• 1848:

o the Bureau of Indian Affairs through the Interior Ministry. It is responsible for relations between the federal government and the Indians.

o Discovery of gold in California, causing a gold rush. The settlers go through the Oregon Trail, which crosses the Indian territories.

• 1851: first treaty of Fort Laramie: the settlers can cross the Indian territories, with a right of passage in kind and in cash.

• August 18, 1854: Episode cow Mormon. A cow belonging to a Mormon, escapes and devastates a camp Sicangus (Brulé) is humbled by a Sicangu. The soldiers of Fort Laramie require that the head is delivered, and the refusal of the chief Conquering Bear, cannonading the village before being defeated by a load of sicangus warriors.

• In retaliation, in November, the Americans attacked the village of Petit chief Clear, kill or maim 136 Indians and 70 are prisoners. Despite the surrender of Little Rain, they are retained two years.

Third Seminole War (1855-1858)

• Clashes take place in 1855 between the United States and about 200 Seminoles remained in Florida.

• In 1858, the head Arched Legs went with his forty warriors.

• 1857: Battle of the Platte with the Cheyenne Indians.

Navajo War (1860-1864)

• Following various skirmishes in the New Mexico Territory between the Navajos and the federal troops, the Navajos go to Kit Carson, which is destroying their property and deport them to Bosque Redondo, Arizona. This is the Long Walk of the Navajo: 8000 Navajos are 620 km away. After four years of undernutrition, they are allowed back on their land.

Paiutes War (1860)

• After a rigorous winter, 6000 Paiutes of Nevada decided to attack American settlers, held responsible for their misfortune for cutting too many trees.

o May 7: raid against the Pony Express, five dead.

o May: many other raids, killing 16 people.

o June: military intervention.

• 1862:

o the Homestead Act granted 62 hectares of land west of the Mississippi to any family "non-Indian" who undertakes to cultivate for five years.

o 1st July 1862: the Pacific Railway Act is signed by Abraham Lincoln: it allows the construction of the first line of transcontinental railroad. Hunters (Buffalo Bill is the most famous) kill millions of bison heads to feed the workers.

1851 Sioux Treaty of Traverse

On July 23, 1851, the "Treaty of the Traverse de Sioux" (Traverse Sioux Treaty) was signed between the US government and the Sioux territory of Minnesota and implemented by the Indian Affairs Commission. This treaty aimed to get the rich farmland that were in Minnesota. Large tracts of land were thus transferred from Iowa to the Canadian border. Sioux tribes such as the Sisseton Wahpeton and hesitate to disinherit but the pressures were so strong, they reluctantly gave way under the potential threat of the federal government.

This treaty aggravated the living conditions of Native Americans. Several factors led to the revolt of the Plains Indians.

• A rush of white settlers swept over these new territories;

• A desire to possess more land by the federal authorities;

• An inability to pay the pensions promised to the Indians;

• Further reductions in ancestral lands that result in the loss of hunting and fishing territories.

The dissatisfaction of all Sioux Dakota tribes lead to the Plains Indian Wars that will last thirty years and was marked by the massacre of Sand Creek, three years after the Treaty of Fort Wise.

Sioux War of 1862

The discontent of the Sioux turned to revolt. The uprising of Native American soon became widespread throughout Minnesota and neighboring Dakota. If some white settlers were killed, the US military quickly send large reinforcements to quell Native American blood this revolt.

• The US government does not deliver the goods as promised due for the purchase of land to Santee Sioux (or Dakota) Sioux tribes and the Sisseton-Wahpeton. Vivid during the Civil War, the massacre by the Sioux enjoys the lack of enemy troops available.

o August 4: looting of warehouses.

o August 14: Five Americans were killed.

o August 18: fearing reprisals, Sioux designate Little Raven (Little Crow) as a warlord. The Indians attacked the Lower Sioux Agency; 25 militiamen were killed in an ambush in Redwood Ferry. In the following weeks, hundreds of settlers were massacred.

o August 19: The Sioux are divided between those who wish to continue the fight, and those who do not want to attack women and children. The first, numbering 400, New Ulm loot and attack Fort Ridgely, without success.

o August 23: They attack again New Ulm, burnt many buildings and killing 36 Americans. Little Raven, wishing peace, loses all control over his warriors.

o September 3: skirmishes in various places, and Battle of Birch Coulee: 22 Americans killed, the two Sioux.

o 18 September: in Wood Lake, Sioux drop out when their leader dies Mankato with fifteen warriors.

o The same year takes place the Battle of Apache Pass.

This war will be over a thousand people including more than 800 Sioux and more than 350 American settlers.

Nearly two thousand Indians were captured. They were finally judged in mass trials before military courts. 303 were judged guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death. Of those convicted, 38 men were hanged in Mankato, the day after Christmas, in the largest mass execution in US history. Abraham Lincoln commuted the other inmates in prison. About 1500 Sioux are held at Fort Snelling until spring 1863;130 die in detention. The leaders Shakopee and Medicine Bottle, refugees in Canada are kidnapped and hanged in 1863. Little Crow was also killed by a settler in the same year.

• 1 January 1863: Mangas Coloradas, head Apaches Gilas was captured and killed.

• January 29, 1863: Bear River Massacre. Colonel Connor attacks a Shoshone camp, killing about 250 people, men, women and children. Conflicts with the Shoshone then last until 1869 and the closure of the Oregon Trail.

• 29 November 1864: Sand Creek Massacre (Colorado Territory). After Indian violence during two years (200 white civilians killed), a punitive expedition is conducted by Colonel John Chivington and 700 men of the 3rd Regiment of Colorado on a village. The militiamen attacked the peaceful village of Black Kettle, although it had negotiated and treated with whites. The massacre is 150 dead, men, women and children, the soldiers are quick to take amounts of garndes scalps and mutilate corpses.

• In 1866, Gabriel Renville was appointed head of the Sisseton Wahpeton-tribes by the department of the US War.

The military leadership, repression, sporadic fighting and theft of their land continued. The military pacification in 1890 led to the massacre at Wounded Knee.

The massacre at Wounded Knee is a military operation that took place in the United States of America, South Dakota, 29 December 1890. Between 300 and 350 American Indian tribe Lakota Miniconjou (including dozens of women and children) were killed by the US army.

Five hundred soldiers of the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States, supported by four Hotchkiss machine guns, surrounded an encampment of Lakota Indians with the order to convey the train to Omaha in Nebraska. The commander of the 7th had been ordered to conduct a prior disarmament.

There are different versions of the massacre but historians agree on the fact that the shooting started during the disarmament of Indians. A shot rang out and the Indians, disarmed and surrounded, were machine-gunned. In total 26 troopers and 153 Sioux Indians were killed, including 62 women and children. Indian corpses were buried in a mass grave on the site of the massacre. Other Sioux died later of their injuries and a lieutenant in the cavalry.

The massacre told by Mathew King, nephew of the Indian chief Red Cloud

"The Big Foot of people had done nothing wrong. It was the middle of winter. The Minniconjous came from North Dakota to take refuge in Pine Ridge along with Red Cloud. They were cold. They were hungry . Their only goal was to survive. They followed the commandment of God.

The band made camp at Wounded Knee. The soldiers arrived with their guns. They surrounded Big Foot and his people as if it were criminals. In fact, it was mostly out of old men, women and small children. Big Foot does not want to fight. He already suffered from pneumonia. It was peaceful.

The soldiers made to align the Indians in the cold and withdrew their all their weapons. One of the last men in the queue, Yellow Bird, bullied by a soldier raised his gun and fired ... Those who managed to escape told all this to our people.

The soldiers posted at the top of the hill then opened fire and spared no one. The Indians collapsed on the ground and soldiers mowed two dozen of them. Warriors tried to defend their people. They fought with all their energy but they had no chance. The soldiers killed them, and massacred the old men, women and children.

Where is it said that we must punish the whole family, the whole people for the misdeeds of one man? Is this your justice? Is this what your Constitution says? This is not what we taught the Law of God.

They massacred three hundred of us.

Our blood bestowed its sanctity at Wounded Knee

The December 29, 1890 with the massacre of Wounded Knee Lakota Minneconjou against them, the army of the USA enters the modern system of war, employing an automatic weapon (the Gatlin) against a group of people considered hostile; rebels under current terminology of George Bush ...

Lance Henson, Cheyenne poet says: "For me, for us native, this is not the past. It is a Western view that the time to think and work. " "Historical facts repressed behind the massacre is a clear example of operation occult. The US government needed to teach their native resistant clear destiny: it is the expression used today as then, by historians and strategists for policies to neutralize native Fulani. This December 29th the Lakota Minneconjou obey military orders, moving during an icy winter to seek refuge in the nearest safe. They stopped to rest and began dancing specters: it was a ceremony hosted by an almost Messiah (that is to say an Indian prophet, whose ceremonies were the result of contamination with white religions ) of the Paiute tribe, called Wovoka. The dance did not intend to threaten but to bring the dead. The officers, terrified, decided to disarm the warriors who obeyed. But a young deaf Lakota, bewildered by what was happening, refused to record his weapon. A soldier tried to snatch his gun and, in panic, a shot was fired. What sparked the panic. We ordered the soldiers to fire against innocent and unarmed people. There were nearly 300 dead, mostly women and children. The bodies left behind froze into a grotesque mausoleum of power. The next morning only, the bodies were buried in a mass grave. The Congress awarded 20 medals of honor to the soldiers who committed the massacre. Adolf Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf that he had the inspiration mass graves looking at the pictures of the wars between whites and Indians. "

The war Plains

• The Sand Creek Massacre shocked the tribes of Indians. Many tribes then begin hostilities, leading scattered raids, forcing the Union soldiers to be stationed along the Oregon Trail to protect, including Platte Bridge.

o July 26, 1865: the Battle of Platte Bridge, the Cheyenne Dull Knife and Oglala Sioux Red Cloud (Red Cloud), attacked a detachment of soldiers near Platte Bridge, and kill almost all.

o September 1865, Indian Powder River Expedition: three columns of blue Tunics are trying to reach Rosebud Creek, two of them fail completely, and all returns to Salt Lake City.

• 1866: Leaders Tashunca Sioux Red Cloud and Crazy Horse-Uitco or attacked Fort Kearny.

• June 1866: The US government is organizing a peace conference at Fort Laramie. General William Sherman asks leaders permission to cross their land and built three forts on the Bozeman Trail (between the Platte and Montana). Red Cloud refused.

• December 21, 1866: The Fetterman Massacre, or the Battle of a Hundred Slain. Lured into an ambush by a trick of the Sioux, the 81 men are wiped Captain Fetterman.

• 18 April 1867: shipment Hancock, which participates Custer, wants to negotiate with the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians.But approaching the village too, it worries the leaders who fled with their families. The Indians who massacred 20 civilians over the north, Hancock burned 251 of 291 tipis, with all that they contained. The war begins and numerous attacks follow one another in the following months.

• 1st and August 2, 1867: The simultaneous attacks of the Sioux and Cheyenne on the Bozeman Trail are successfully repulsed by the US military.

• April 29, 1868: The second Fort Laramie Treaty recognizes the ancestral territory of the Sioux (from Missouri to the east, south Platte and Big Horn Mountains in the west); food and materials will be given annually to Sioux; a reserve is created between Wyoming and Dakota to the Sioux. The United States renounce Bozeman, track right through the Black Hills, and take ownership of them.

• July 3, 1868: revision of the Treaty of Fort Bridger (1863), which guaranteed a reserve of 178 688 km2 to Shoshone. It is reduced to 11 097 km2 (16 times less). However, they retain the right to hunt on their territory. The United States undertake to construct various buildings (mill, school, church); the United States Rail Road is authorized to construct a railway line on the Shoshone territory.

• 27 November 1868: Washita River battle. In retaliation for deadly raids Cheyenne Indian, Lt. Col. George A. Custer attacked the village of Black Kettle, killing more than 120 warriors, made 53 civilian prisoners and announced the release of two captive white children and the death of a woman captive.

• May 10, 1869: completion of the transcontinental.

• July 11, 1869: Battle of Summit Springs, which occurs after various clashes between the US Army and the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. The 5th Cavalry Colonel Eugene Carr attacked the camp and killed 25 Indians (he has an injured regrettable).

• 1870 massacre of Indians at Pied-Noirs Marias River.

• March 3, 1871: Indian Appropriation Act: Congress ends the treaties signed with the independent Indian tribes, and no longer recognizes individuals. However, the 371 treaties signed since 1776 (more than 175 between 1607 and 1775) are still recognized. The regulations adopted in the following years the empty of any substance.

Modoc War (1872-1873)

• The Modoc live in Northern California and Southern Oregon. They lead several strikes on the first railway wagons. Colonization beginning in the Lost River Valley, the settlers demand that the Indians are moved to the reserve and Snakes Klamath, Modoc enemies. However, 372 Modoc end up settling in the reserve, they leave in April 1869.

• 28 November 1872: on the insistence of the settlers, the army sent a column to bring the Modoc in the reserve, and fire their village. The Modoc Jim Hook of killing 14 settlers in retaliation to Tule Lake, then join those of Kientpoos (Jack captain for the Anglo-Saxons).

• 16 January 1873: in the very rugged lava field and misty the Stronghold (Fortress), 300 soldiers and volunteers looking Modoc 50 without finding them; they attack and inflicted heavy losses on them, forcing them to flee, abandoning their arms and baggage.

• April 11: During peace negotiations, Kientpoos influenced by Jim Hook and a shaman, kills the General Canby.

• June 3: Kientpoos is captured. He is on trial for the murder of Canby and hanged on October 3 with three other Modoc.The Modoc were deported in the Quapaw reserve. • 1874: death of Cochise.

Red River War (1874-1875)

• It is caused by several factors: the territorial pressure from settlers, protected by the fort building by the army, the Indian customs guerrilla permanently; the destruction of the buffalo herds by white hunters. It takes place in the southern Great Plains.

o June 27, 1874: Battle of Adobe Walls, which pits 700 warriors Comanches, Kiowas, Cheyennes and Arapaho controlled by Quanah Parker and Isa-Tai to American buffalo hunters. The Indians were repulsed with 70 deaths, against 3 in the ranks of hunters. This battle led to a great campaign of the army, commanded by William T. Sherman and Philip Sheridan, to ensure control of the southern plains. Peaceful Indians were held in their reserves before the start of the campaign. Various columns encircled the warriors hostile Indians, and various skirmishes took place during the summer. The most important action is taken on September 26, with two fatalities among the Indians of several villages in Palo Duro Canyon, the Colonel Mackenzie.

o The winter campaigns of the US Army, reinforced by several detachments, lead to the surrender of the principal leaders in spring 1875. Their warriors were starved by lack of bison.

• 1875: death of the leader Kiowa Kicking Bird.

Black Hills War (1876)

• 1874: announcement by Lieutenant Colonel Custer the discovery of gold in the sacred mountains of the Black Hills Sioux. The rush caused or causes clashes between Sioux, Cheyenne and the US military.

o June 17, 1876: General George Crook, with 1050 soldiers and 260 Crow and Shoshone scouts, was attacked in the Rosebud Valley, for about 750 warriors Crazy Horse (Crazy Horse);losses are low on each side (10 killed and 20 wounded in the US, 50 Native Americans) and Crook should turn back. This battle is called by the Americans battle of Rosebud and the Battle Indians where the girl saved her brother (a young Cheyenne came to the aid of his brother took him under his dead horse).

o June 25, 1876: Battle of Little Big Horn: Lieutenant Colonel Custer, 7th cavalry, and 260 of his men were killed by the Cheyennes of Two Moon and the Sioux of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse heads. This battle has a great impact on public opinion, and Custer became a mythical figure.

o 9 and September 10, 1876: General George Crook, pursuing the victorious Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn, surprises the American Horse camp ("American Horse"). Its two thousand soldiers burn the camp; the attack against the Oglala Sioux warriors of 800 Tashunca-Uitco says "Crazy Horse" camped nearby is repelled without difficulty by General Crook who has 2000 riders. American Horse was killed in battle.

o September 7, 1877: Violent death of Crazy Horse at Fort Robinson (Little Big Man would have participated), while the Oglala Sioux had made their surrender and had gone to a reserve.

Nez Perce War (1877)

The pressure of the settlers led to a first treaty delimiting the Nez Perce territory in 1855. Treaty which the US government requesting the review in 1863, reducing the area of the reserve of 90%. Some leaders, including Lawyer (Legal) sign the treaty, and go into a reserve Idaho. Five tribes refuse to be locked in a reserve, including that of Old Chief Joseph. His son Young Chief Joseph continues to refuse this treaty, and maintain good relations with the authorities of Wallowa. They decided in 1873 that the land occupied by settlers have been illegally acquired, and ask them to evacuate.

In 1876, the Battle of Little Big Horn increases the pressure of the army that Indians are confined to their reserves. But the Nez Perce finding no suitable land in the reserve Idaho refuse the ultimatum to General Oliver Howard, 3 May 1877. The remaining free Nez Perce are divided into three groups: some join the reserve, others head for the plains bison, the last group tries to escape to Canada.

• 1878: Kiowa chief Satanta death.

Cheyenne War (1878-1879)

After the Treaty of Fort Wise, contested by the Cheyennes for corruption, in full Pike’s Peak Gold Rush, Colorado, the Cheyenne were the victims of the 1864 Sand Creek massacre in which the Colorado Militia killed 150 Cheyenne, at least 50 civilians. Early in the morning of November 27, 1868 began the Battle of Washita River when the Lieutenant Colonel US Army George Armstrong Custer led the 7th Cavalry in an attack on a band of Cheyenne guilty raids led by Chief Black Kettle. 148 Cheyenne were killed, including 20 women and children. The Northern Cheyenne, and some Southern Cheyennes participated in the Battle of Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876). With the Lakota and a small band of Arapaho, they annihilated George Armstrong Custer and his contingent near the Little Bighorn River. It is estimated the population of the encampment of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho near the site of the battle around 6000 (including 1.5 thousand warriors); which would make it the largest Native American gathering in North America before the widespread use of reserves.

After the Battle of Little Bighorn attempts by the US Army to capture the Cheyenne intensified. A group of 972 Cheyenne was deported in the Oklahoma Indian Territory in 1877. There, living conditions were terrible, the Northern Cheyenne were not used to the climate and soon many were suffering from malaria. In 1878, the two main leaders, Little Wolf and Morning Star (Dull Knife), demanded the release of the Cheyenne so that he can return to the north.The same year, a group of about 350 Cheyenne left Indian Territory to the north, led by the two leaders. The soldiers of the army and civilian volunteers, estimated the total number to 13,000, were quickly in pursuit. The band quickly separated into two groups. The group led by Little Wolf back in Montana. The band Morning Star was captured and escorted to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, where she was kidnapped. They were ordered to return to Oklahoma, they promptly and firmly refused. The conditions became increasingly difficult in late 1878 and soon the Cheyenne were confined to their quarters, no food, no water, no heating.

In January 1879, Morning Star and his companions escaped from Fort Robinson. Most were shot while fleeing the fort. An estimated 50 the number of survivors, who joined other Northern Cheyenne in Montana. Thanks to their determination and sacrifice, the Northern Cheyenne had earned the right to remain in the north near the Black Hills. In 1884, by order of the executive, a reserve for the Northern Cheyenne was established in southeastern Montana. This reserve was extended in 1890 to extend the Crow reservation in the west to the Tongue River in the east.

Bannocks War (1878)

• 1879: Revolt mimbres Apaches led by Victorio. About 400 settlers and soldiers were killed.

• 1880: Victorio was killed in Mexico and decimated group.

• 1886: Geronimo, the last Apache leader to resist the deportation of his family on a reserve went to General Miles.

• February 8, 1887: vote the General Allotment Act or Dawes Act Severalty by Congress authorizing the President to sell Indian lands to individuals, in small plots. This subdivision is amplified by the Burke Act of 1906. It aims to remove the collective ownership of land, and transform the Indians into farmers. The remainder is distributed to settlers, and Oklahoma became a state in 1907.

• 1889:

o January: Paiute shaman Wovoka has a vision that inspires the spirit dance. The message: "let them do the great spirit" is interpreted as a call to rebellion or as a call to fatalism.

o April: under the General Allotment Act, the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes, where the Cherokee Indians, Seminole, creeks, and choctaws Chickasaws had been deported in the 1830s, is open to settlers.

• December 15, 1890: Sitting Bull, Sioux chief, killed during his preventive arrest (for fear of a revolt sparked by the Dance of the spirits).

• December 29, 1890: Wounded Knee Massacre, massacre of 250 Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee Creek miniconjou, including 130 civilians and Chief Big Foot, by soldiers of the 7th Cavalry; 25 Americans are killed, some victims of friendly fire. • 1896: the census, Indians are more than 250,000.

In the nineteenth century, the Indians of North America were herded into reserves and their main game disappears, bison are slaughtered under federal incentives. Although the settlers a good Indian was a dead Indian, it is not considered a genocide because there was no governmental will to exterminate the Indians stopped. They were hungry (bison slaughter premium) lost their land through violence and deceit (breach of signed agreements) and deprived of their freedom of worship and the right to speak their languages. This policy is commonly called ethnocide.

Extensions in the twentieth century

1904: death of the leader Nez Perce Chief Joseph

1909: death of Geronimo

1909: death of Red Cloud

1911

o Death of Comanche chief Quanah Parker

o Foundation of the Society of American Indians.

1924: citizenship is granted to North American Indians.

1934 Indian Reorganization Act: the Federal State ends the fragmentation process of Indian lands, and recognizes Indian tribes the right to autonomy.

1948: the right to vote is granted to Indians by the States of Arizona and New Mexico.

1953: beginning of the termination process, aimed at the removal of Indian reserves.

1956: the right to vote is granted to Indians by the State of Utah.

1960: mass sterilization of Indian women (about 40%).

1968: birth of the Indian movement (American Indian Movement) in Minneapolis.

1969: Native American occupation of Alcatraz in San Francisco.

1973: the American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee, where the Sioux were killed in 1890. The army and besieging the FBI for 73 days, resulting in several deaths. During the following months, the repression of the FBI and paramilitaries made 65 dead.

1990: Oka crisis in Quebec: the Canadian army intervened to expel the Mohawks occupying an ancestral cemetery, which is to be demolished for the construction of a golf course.

Some dates crimes against the Native American people of Canada

1859: the Jesuit Paul Durieu, installed in British Columbia, plans to exterminate all non-Christian Indian chiefs. A model that took over then in the Indian Residential School, boarding schools for Indian children which we will talk at length.

1862-1863: smallpox epidemic introduced by an Anglican missionary, the future bishop, John Sheepshanks, who inoculated the virus to Native American children. This, under the cover of the provincial government and the fur trade of Hudson Bay Company, which sponsors the first Protestant missions among the Indians. It is also the first known biological warfare history, and it has allowed gold miners to plunder the lands of these thousands of Indians murdered.

1870 the English crown lands Indian file Anglicans and other Catholic missionaries.

1873: an armed force is established (mounted police) that has among its functions to repress all the Indians on reserves, and this all along the railway that crosses the country.

1876 Indian Act removes the status of Indian citizens. They can not vote, are considered minor and can not go to court, which is always the case.

1886: Indian ceremonies are prohibited.

1889 Indian schools are prohibited, children must go to boarding schools for Aboriginal.

1891: First mass death of Indian children in residential schools because of untreated tuberculosis. The government does not care.

1905: more than a hundred of these schools are active in Canada.

2007: the government sets up a commission of reconciliation and truth, which refuses to compensate more than half of sruvivants.

June 2008: Under pressure, the government "apologizes" for the crimes, while seeking to minimize. There is still no question of paying the church.

2009 witnessed a murder of a child, Johnny "Bingo" Dawson, was murdered by the police, who threatened him if he talked.

2010: contacts between the survivors of the Canadian Church, Irish, Italian, German and English are tied. It is clear that Ratzinger, Pope, worked all his life to hide these abuses to the public.

2012: while the government is still mine to make "reconciliation" and "truth", equity Justice will start in earnest. Incidentally, note that the survivors of the residential area school conchient literally the "Truth and Reconciliation Commission" that attempts to smoke out some years ago, with great blows of subsidies. And today, we still do not know the number of children who have gone into the schools. It officially talking about 100,000 to 200,000 children.

Seattle (Duwamich and Suquamich)

Oiti (Shoshone)

Geronimo (Apache)

Eskadi (Apache)

Cochise (Apache)

Black Hawk (Sauk and Fox)

Crazy Horse (Lakotas)

Sitting Bull (Lakotas Hunkpapas)

What the Indian chiefs have said :

"You do not sell the land on which we walk! "

Crazy Horse, Oglala Lakota chief

"We have always had great; our children have never cried from hunger, our people has never wanted for anything ... Rapid Rock River provided us with excellent fish and fertile land has always been good corn crops, beans, this pumpkins, gourds ... Here was our town for over 100 years during which we held the valley without her we had ever played. If a prophet had come to our village in time we predict what would happen, and what happened, nobody in the village would have thought. "

Black Hawk, indian chief of the Sauk American Indian tribe

"We love peace, we let the mouse to play in peace when the woods rustle in the wind, we have no fear."

Indian chief to the Governor of Pennsylvania in 1796

"We know: the earth does not belong to man, it is man who belongs to the earth we know. All things are connected Whatever befalls the earth befalls the son of the earth. . Man did not weave the web of life, it is a wire cloth. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. "

Seattle, Suquamish Indian chief

"The Lakota was filled with compassion and love for nature, and commitment grew with age. (...) This is why the old Indians were standing on the floor rather than remain separate forces life. Sit or lie down and allowed them to think more deeply, feeling more strongly. They then gazed with greater clarity the mysteries of life and felt closer of all living forces that surrounded them. The old Lakota was wise. He knew that the heart of man away from nature becomes hard. He knew the respect due to forgetting everything that grows and lives which also leads to no longer respect the man. So he kept the youth under the gentle influence of nature. "

Standing Bear Chief Lakota (Sioux)

"We see the hand of the Great Spirit in almost everything: sun, moon, trees, wind and mountains, sometimes we approach it through them (...) We believe in the Supreme Being, d. a much stronger faith than many whites who treated us heathens ... The Indians living close to nature and the Master of nature do not live in the dark age. Did you know that trees talk? They do however! They talk to each other and you talk if you listen. The trouble with white people is that they do not listen! They never listened to the Indians, so I guess they do not listen to the other voices of nature. Yet, the trees taught me a lot: sometimes on time, sometimes about animals, sometimes about the Great Spirit. "

Tatanga Mani (or Walking Buffalo), Stoney Indian (Canada)

"White people make fun of the land, the deer or the bear. When we, Indians, seeking the roots, we make little holes. When we build our tipis, we make little holes. We use only the dead wood. The white man, he returns to the ground, shade trees, destroyed everything. The tree said, "Stop, I’m hurt, do not hurt me."But the blind and debits the. The spirit of the earth hates. He tears the trees and shaking the roots up. He saw trees. It hurts them. The Indians never do wrong, so that the white man demolishes everything. He blew the rocks and leaves scattered on the ground. Rock says "Stop, you’re hurting me." But the white man does not notice. When the Indians use the stones, they are small and round it to their fire ... How the spirit of the earth could he love white man? ... Wherever he touches, he leaves a wound. "

Wise old Wintu (California Indians)

"I can remember the days when the buffalo were so numerous that they could not count them, but Wasichus (white men) have killed so many that there are only carcasses where they had grazed before. The Wasichus were not killing for food; they killed them for the metal that makes them mad and they were keeping the skin for sale Sometimes they do not even cut up they took only the languages and I have heard.. of fire-boats Descending the Missouri charge of dried buffalo languages Sometimes they do not even take the languages. They simply killed for the pleasure of killing those who did this were crazy when we hunted bison,.. we were not doing it according to our needs. "

Hehaka Sapa, Great Chief Sioux

"You noticed that anything done by an Indian is in a circle. Our tepees were round like birds’ nests and always arranged in a circle. This is because the power of the universe is in circles and everything tends to be round. In the old days, when we were a strong and happy people, all our power came from the sacred circle of the nation, and as long as it was not broken. All that made the Universe can be done in a circle. The sky is round and I have heard that the earth is round like a ball and all the stars are too. Birds make their nests circle because they have the same religion as us. The sun rises and goes down again in a circle, the moon does the same and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing and always come back to where they were. The human life is a circle of childhood to childhood, and so it is with everything for which energy moves. "

Hehaka Sapa or Black Elk, Oglala Indian branch of the Dakota (Sioux)

"Life in a tipi is much better. It is always clean, warm in winter, cool in summer, and easy to move. The white man built a big house that costs a lot of money, like a big cage, do not let the sun shine, and can not be moved; it is always unhealthy Indians and animals know better live than white man No one can be healthy without constantly fresh air,.. . sun, good water If the Great Spirit had wished that men should remain in one place, it would have still made the world, but he did it always changes, so that birds and animals can move and find still green grass and ripe berries. The white man does not obey the Great Spirit. This is why we can not agree with him. "

Flying Hawk, Sioux leader of the clan of Oglala

"The vast open plains, the beautiful hills and waters that wind in complicated meanders were not" wild "to us. Only the white man was the wild, and the earth itself was" infested "of animals "wild" and "wild" tribes. To us, the earth seemed fresh, and we lived filled the benefits of the Great Mystery. She became hostile to us the arrival of the bearded man from the East who overwhelms us of senseless and brutal injustice. "

Standing Bear Chief Lakota (Sioux)

"Our land is worth more than money. It will always be there. It will not perish even in the flames of a fire. As long as the sun shines and the water will flow, this land will be here to give life men and animals. We can sell the life of men and animals. This is why we can not sell this land. It was placed here by the Great Spirit and we can not sell it because it belongs to us not. "

Blackfeet Indian chief (Blackfoot)

"My boys will never work. Men who work can not dream. And wisdom comes from the dreams."

Smohalla, Indian chief Sokulls

"The Great Spirit has given us a vast land to live, and bison, deer, antelope and other game. But you came to me and you’ve stolen my land. You kill my game. It then becomes hard to us to live. Now you tell us that to live, you have to work. But the Great Spirit does not make us to work, but to live by hunting. You, white people, you can work if you want. We do not gênons. But again you say "why do not you become civilized? "We do not want your civilization! We want to live as did our fathers and their fathers before them. "

Crazy Horse, Great Chief of the clan Oglala Sioux

"You are already so miserable that you can become the most. What kind of man to be Europeans? What kind of creature they choose to be, forced to do good and to avoid evil having to Another inspiration that fear of punishment? (...) Man is not only he who walks upright on his feet, who knows reading and writing and show a thousand examples of his industry ... In truth my dear brother, I pity you from the bottom of my soul. Take my advice and becomes Huron. I clearly see the profound difference between my condition and yours. I am the master of my condition. I am the master of my body, I have the disposal of myself, I do what I like, I am the first and the last of my nation, I fear no man absolutely, I depend only Great Spirit. It is not the same for you. Your body as well as your soul is condemned to depend on your great captain, your viceroy has you.You do not have the freedom to do what you have in mind. You’re afraid of thieves, murderers, false witnesses, etc. And you depend a person infinitely whose place is located above yours. Is that right? "

Kondiarionk, Huron chief, addressing the Baron de Lahontan, French Lieutenant’s Newfoundland

"White men announced aloud that their laws were made for everyone, but it became immediately clear that, hoping to pass us, they did not hesitate to break themselves. Their sages advised us to adopt their religion but we quickly discovered that existing a lot. We could not understand them, and two white men were rarely agree on the need to take it. This scruple us much until one day we realized that the white man no more taking his religion seriously its laws. They kept them in hand as instruments, to use them at will in its dealings with foreigners. "

Pachgantschilhilas, Chief Delaware

"Every year our white invader becomes greedy, demanding, authoritarian and oppressive ... The misery and oppression, that is the lot that falls to us ... Are we not robbed every day the little freedom that we rest? Unless the tribes did unanimously combine to moderate the ambitions and greed of the whites, they will soon all we conquered and disunited, we will be driven out of our homeland and scattered like autumn leaves in the wind. "

Tecumseh, Shawnee chief, in 1812

"We do not want chariots of fire that make noise (steam trains) on bison hunting grounds. If the Pale Faces still progressing on our land, the scalps of your brothers will be in wigwams Cheyenne. I said !"

Roman Nose, the Cheyenne warrior chief, addressing the General Palmer in 1866 in Kansas

"Look at my brothers, spring came, the earth received the kisses of the sun and we will soon see the fruits of this love. Every seed is awake, and likewise, any animal is alive. That’s mysterious power that we too must our existence. That is why we grant to our neighbors, even our neighboring animals as much right to us to inhabit this earth. But listen to me my brothers, we must now reckon with another race, small and weak when our fathers met her for the first time, but today it has become tyrannical. Fort strangely, they have in mind the desire to cultivate the soil, and love to own home is a disease. This people made laws that rich can break but not the poor. They levy taxes on the poor and weak to maintain the rich who rule. They claim our mother, the earth, for themselves and they barricade themselves against their neighbors. They disfigure the land with their buildings and their refuse. This nation is like slush torrent bursts its banks and destroys everything in its path. "

Tatanka Yotanka, or Sitting Bull, Sioux chef

"Brother, our territory was tall and yours was small. You’re now become a great people, and we have barely space to spread our blankets. You have our country, but this is not enough. Want us force her to marry your religion. Brother continues to listen. You tell sent here to teach us to worship the Great Spirit in a way that it is enjoyable. And you claim that if we do not adopt the religion you preach whites you, we will be unhappy here below. You say be right and that we are lost. How can we verify the truth of your words? (...) Brother, you say there is only one way to worship and serve the Great Spirit. If there is only one religion, why is the white people so divided on this issue? We know that your religion is written in a book. Why are not you all agree, if you can all read the book? Brother, we do not understand these things. We are told that your religion was given to your forefathers, and has been passed from father to son.We too have a religion that our ancestors received and we have sent to us, their children. We pay the worship that way. It teaches us to be grateful for all the favors we receive, to love one another and be united. We never quarrel about religion because it is a subject that concerns every man before the Great Spirit. "

Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, or Red Jacket, Head Seneca (Iroquois) and large speaker Six Nations

"I watch with sadness the decline of our noble race. Our fathers were strong and their power extended throughout the American continent. But we have been reduced and broken by the cunning and rapacity of the race to white skin. We are now forced to seek, as charity, the right to live on our own land, cultivate our own land, drinking our own sources. There are many winters, our wise ancestors predicted that a large white-eyed monster would come from the East, and that in view As he advanced he would devour the earth. This monster is the white race, and the prediction is close to fulfillment. "

O-no’-sa, Indian chief

"The change in tribal costume for that of the white man was brutal. The effects on the health and comfort of children were considerable. Our first complaint was to have their hair cut. The Lakota men have always worn long hair. Several days after being shorn, we felt strange and uncomfortable. If the argument were true, namely the elimination of lice, why girls had they not undergone the same treatment as boys? The truth is that they wanted to transform us. Short hair is the hallmark of the white man, we imposed us, while he himself kept his own habit of just growing facial hair. "

Standing Bear, Lakota Indian chief

"The Wasichus put us in these square boxes (houses), our power is gone, and we will die because the power is not in us. We are prisoners of war as we wait here. But there is another world. "

Hehaka or Black Elk (Wapiti Black), Indian Sioux

"Child, I knew giving. I lost this grace by becoming civilized. I was leading a natural life, whereas today I saw the artificial. The slightest pretty pebble was valuable to me. Every tree was an object of respect. Today, I admire the white man with a painted landscape whose value is expressed in dollars! "

Chiyesa contemporary Indian writer

"I went to school for white men. I learned to read their textbooks, newspapers and the Bible. But I found out in time that this was not enough. Civilized people depend much too much of the printed page. I turned to the book of the Great Spirit is all of it. You can read much of the book by studying nature. If you take all your books and spread them in the sun, leaving for some time the rain, snow and insects do their work, there will remain nothing more. But the Great Spirit gave us the possibility to you and me to study at the university of nature forests, rivers, mountains, and animals which we are part. "

Tatanga Mani (or Walking Buffalo), Stoney Indian (Canada)

"The white man in his indifference to the significance of nature, has defiled the face of Mother Earth. The technological advance of the white man proved as a consequence of its lack of interest in spiritual path, and the significance of all that lives. The appetite of the white man for physical possession and power blinded to the harm he has caused to our Mother Earth, in its search for what he calls natural resources. And the path of the Great Spirit has become difficult to see for almost all men, and even for many Indians who have chosen to follow the path of the white man. Today, the sacred lands where Hopi live are desecrated by men seeking coal and water in our soil, to create more energy for the cities of the white man. We must not allow this to continue. Otherwise Mother Nature would react in such a way that almost all men have to undergo the end that has already begun. The Great Spirit has said that we should not let that happen, even if the prediction was made to our ancestors. The Great Spirit told not to take to the land, not to destroy living things. Today almost all the prophecies were fulfilled. Major roads like rivers through the landscape; man talking through a phone network and travels in the sky with its planes. Two major wars were made by those who wear the swastika or the sunrise. The Great Spirit said if an ash gourd was spilled on the ground, many men would die, and that the end of this way of life was near. We interpret this as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We do not want that to happen again in any other country for any other people; that energy should be used for peaceful purposes, not for war. We, religious leaders and legitimate spokesman independent people of the Hopi, have been charged by the Great Spirit to send to US President and to all spiritual leaders an invitation to meet with us to discuss the salvation of humanity, that Peace, Unity and Brotherhood prevail wherever there are men. "

Letter of the Hopi Indians to President Nixon in 1970

These texts are excerpts from the book TCMac Luhan, "Barefoot on the sacred land", an anthology of philosophy, lifestyle and destiny of North American Indians.

Let’s add the letter of Chief Seattle, in response to President Cleveland who proposed, on behalf of the United States of America, to buy the last land of the Indian people in 1894:

"How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? That seems strange to us. If the freshness of the air and the sound of water is not ours, how can we sell them?"

"For my people, there is not a corner of this land is sacred. A pine needle flickering, sandy shore, a light mist, everything is holy in the eyes and the memory of my people . The sap rising in the tree carries with it the memory of the Redskins. The whites dead forget their native country when they go to the stars. Our dead never forget this beautiful earth, as c is the mother of Redskin We are part of the earth and it is part of us that flowers smell so good are our sisters, the deer, the horses the great eagle are our brothers.. rocky crests, the humidity Prairie, the body heat of the pony and man belong to the same family. So when the big white chief in Washington tells me that he wants to buy our land, he asks us a lot ... "

"The rivers are our sisters, they quench our thirst; these rivers carry our canoes and feed our children if we sell you our land, you must remember this and teach your children that the rivers are our brothers and yours and. that, therefore, you must treat them with the same love gave to your brothers. We know that the white man does not understand our way of seeing. A piece of land for himself, deserves another SINCE he is a stranger who comes in the night and takes from the land whatever he needs the earth is not his sister but his enemy;. after all that, he goes he leaves his father’s grave. behind him and he does not care! In a way, it deprives children of the earth and he does not care. The tomb of his father and the rights of its children are forgotten. He treats his mother, the earth, and his father The sky, as things that can be bought, plundered and sold like sheep or colored beads. His appetite will devour the earth and leave only a desert ... "

"The air is precious to the red man for all things breathe the same way. The beast, the tree, the man, all breathe the same way. The white man does not seem to pay attention to air that breathes. Like a dying, he no longer recognizes odors. But if we sell you our land, you must remember that the air is infinitely precious and that the Spirit of the air is the same in all living things. The wind that gave our ancestor its first breath also receives his last look. And if we sell you our land, you must keep intact and sacred as a place where man can go even perceive the taste Wind and sweetness of a meadow in bloom ... "

"I am a savage and I do not understand another way of life. I have seen thousands of rotting buffaloes on the prairie, left there by the white man who shot them from a passing train. I a savage and I do not understand how the smoking iron horse can be more important than the buffalo that we kill for the needs of our lives. What is man without the beasts? If all beasts were gone, man would die completely alone, because it happens to the beasts soon happens to man. All things are connected. "

"You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is nothing but ashes of our ancestors. Thus, they will respect the land. Tell them also that the earth is rich with the lives of our loved ones. Teach children what we have taught us: that the earth is our mother and that everything that happens to the earth befalls the children of the earth If men spit upon the ground, it’s about themselves they spit. . This we know it: the earth does not belong to man, it is man who belongs to the earth This we know. All things are interconnected like the blood is the link between the members of the same family. All things are connected together ... "

"But while we are perishing, you will shine, illuminated by God’s strength that led you to this earth and who, for a special purpose, allowed you to dominate the Redskin. This destiny is a mystery to us. We do not understand why the buffalo are all slaughtered, the wild horses are why domesticated or why the most secret places forests are heavy with the smell of men, or why even the sight of the beautiful hills is guarded by the son who speak. What happened to the deep thickets? They disappeared. What happened to the great eagle? It disappeared too. It is the end of life and the beginning of survival. "

The Indian Chief Sitting Bull :

"What the treaty he has respected the red white man had broken? None. Which treaty the white man he had ever spent with us and respected? No. When I was a child, the Sioux were masters of the world; the sun rose and set sue their land; they led ten thousand men in battle. Where are the warriors today? Who killed them? Where are our lands? Who owns them? What white man can say I ever stole his land or a penny? Yet they say I am a thief. What white woman, even isolated, have I ever captured or insulted? Yet they say I am a bad Indian. What white man ever seen me drunk? Who has ever come to me hungry and left hungry? Never seen me fight my wives or abuse my children? What law have I broken? Am I wrong to love my own law? Is it wrong for me because I have red skin? Because I am Sioux? Because I was born where my father lived? Because I am ready to die for my people and my land? " "I want to ensure that everyone knows that I do not intend to sell one parcel of our land; I do not want whites cut our trees along rivers, I would very much like the oaks whose fruits especially I like I like to observe because the acorns they endure winter storms and summer heat, and -. as ourselves. - seem to thrive by them " "For sixty-four years you have persecuted my people. What have we done to have to leave our country, I ask you? I’ll tell you. We had nowhere to go, so we we took refuge here . It is from this side of the border that I learned to shoot and became a man. For this reason I came back. I was hounded until, forced to abandon my own land, I come here. I was raised in this region and I shake the hands of these people today [Canadians]. That’s how I got to know these people and that’s how I intend to live. We have not given our country;you’re captured. See how these people treat me. Look at me. You believe me fooled, but you are much more than me. This house, the house of the English, is a sacred house [= maion of truth] and you come here we tell lies!We do not want to hear them. I have now spoken enough. You can return home.Do not say anything. Bring with you your lies. I will stay with these people. The country where we come up to us; you’ve taken; we live here. "

Seattle (Duwamish )

Geronimo (Apache) Geronimo, The story of his life

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  • Chronology : Struggle of American Indians 21 April 01:16, by Godofredo

    TUPAC AMARU II SPAWNED THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND WAS THE

    FIRST MAN IN ABOLISH THE SLAVERY IN THE WORLD

    To acquire national identity must know our history, we know the official story but not the real story, which begins to rewrite. The November 4, 1780 began the revolution of Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera TUPAC AMARU with the arrest and subsequent execution of bloodthirsty corregidor Antonio de Arriaga, who cracked the foundations of the Spanish empire in America and paved the way for the independence of Latin America.
    In our country, Peru, Jose Gabriel Cordorcanqui Tupac Amaru spawned the French Revolution to decree the abolition of slavery in November 16, 1780 at the Shrine of Tungasuca; in North American by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 and in Peru by Ramón Castilla in 1854, 83 years and 74 years respectively after Tupac Amaru abolished. For historical right and justice should be Tupac Amaru paternity of the abolition of slavery in the world, Peru and the French Revolution. In this decision, to abolish slavery is synthesized equality, fraternity and liberty of the French Revolution, the same way provided the stimulus and inspiration for writing the works of Juan Pablo Vizcardo and Guzman, Pablo de Olavide, as likewise inspired to St. Martin for the release of Argentina, Chile and Peru and is the first precursor of Latin American emancipation. Contemporary personalities compare him to Cromwell, Robespierre and George Washington. It was clever and educated person, doctor of canon law, theology and civil, with political culture, polyglot: dominated the Castilian, Latin, Quechua. Aymara and other dialects. Their culture is seen in the office that sends Areche on March 5, 1781 in a paragraph he writes: "A humble rustic shepherd boy with the stick, the deep and divine providence delivered the unhappy people of Israel, of the power of Goliath and Pharaoh, the reason was the tears of these poor captives give such voices of compassion, for justice to heaven, after hundreds of years out of his martyrdom and agony for the Promised Land, but woe at last met their desires, but with so much suffering and sorrow .. More us unhappy Indians, with sighs and tears over them, so many centuries we could not get some relief, is the reason why the Pharaoh that haunts us, abused and harassed not one only, but many, as wicked and depraved hearts as are the magistrates, his lieutenants, collectors and other brackets. diabolical and wicked men, I presume that infernal chaos born of grim and were based on the most ungrateful harpies breasts, by be as wicked, cruel tyrants and Attilas the Neros, of whom history regards their iniquities and hear only the bodies tremble and cry their hearts. "
    He traveled on a white horse and his entourage are in the chaplain and peoples was received. by priests coated chorus, tails high and canopy .. The preparation of the rebellion lasted about 10 years, mobilized over 100, 000 soldiers in an area of more than 1,500 kilometers, were mobilizing people with passports or laissez-passer issued by his lieutenant and wife Micaela Bastidas and his family nickname was CHEPE. The answer to Areche, their relentless tormentor: "You by oppressive and I avoid it, deserve the death" sums up his personality. Antonio de Areche did justice to inform the Minister of the Indies April 30, 1781: "It is a very strong spirit and nature and serenity imponderable". Answer his executioners: "Do not tell anyone the truth, but you bring forth meat apart" He performed his word.
    The objectives of the revolution of Tupac Amaru was not intended to annex territories but was eminently social and economic: abolish slavery, mita, distributions, mills disappearance of the magistrates, in short, anti-colonial, anti-slavery and anti-feudalism, only in the world. In the place where Tupac Amaru signed the abolition of slavery should rise an altar antislavery, corrected the historical omission and justice to recognize who he was the first to abolish slavery in the world and in Peru, consider you first precursor of America independence and father of the French Revolution. later that never come true.
    The goals of this movement remain valid, will end when we have a government that works for the development of Peruvians and not any child sleep without eating any bread: in the day: there is justice. The glory of José Gabriel will continue to grow as it grows in the shade when the sun sets.
    Biblography
    1. Lewin B. The Rebellion of Tupac Amaru, 1957
    2. Valcárcel CD. Tupac Amaru, 1970
    3. R. Hernandez Precursor and Tupac Amaru rebel, 1969
    4. J. Bonilla Tupac Amaru Revolution, 1971
    5. Valcárcel CD. The revolution of Túpac Amaru, 1973
    6. Sivirichi A. The social revolution of Tupac Amaru, 1979
    7 JJ Vega. Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, 1969

    Dr. Godofredo Arauzo
    Email: godo_ara@hotmail.com

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